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Communication Theory This book is an introduction to communication theory — the theory of how humans share, encode, and decode what can you go to university with a btec know, what they need, and what they expect from each other. ' Communication is deeply rooted in human behaviors and societies. It dr darell bigner duke university difficult to think of social or behavioral events from which communication is absent. Indeed, communication applies to shared behaviors and properties of any collection of things, whether they are human or not. We may turn to etymology for clues: "communication" (from the Latin "communicare") literally means "to put in common", "to share". The term originally meant sharing of tangible things; food, land, goods, and property. Today, it is often applied to knowledge and information processed by living things or computers. We might say that communication consists of transmitting information. In fact, many scholars of communication take this as a working definition, and use Lasswell's maxim ("who bible scriptures on education what to whom") as a means of circumscribing the field of communication. Others stress the importance of clearly characterizing the historical, economic and social context. The field of communication theory can benefit from a conceptualization of communication that is widely shared. Communication Theory attempts to document types of communication, and to optimize communications for the benefit of all. Indeed, a theory is some form of explanation of a class of observed phenomena. Karl Popper colorfully described theory as "the net which we throw out in order to catch the world--to rationalize, explain, and dominate it." The idea of a theory lies at the heart of any scholarly process, and while those in the social sciences tend to as you sow so shall you reap essay the tests of a good theory from the natural sciences, many who study communication adhere to an idea of communication theory that is akin to that found in other academic fields. This book approaches communication theory from a biographical perspective, in an attempt to show theory development within a social context. Many of these theorists would not actually consider themselves "communication" researchers. The field of communication study is remarkably inclusionary, and integrates theoretical perspectives originally developed in a range of other disciplines. Many suggest that there is no such thing as a successful body of communication theory, but that we have been relatively more successful in generating models of communication. A model, according to a seminal 1952 article by Karl Deutsch ("On Communication Models in the Social Sciences"), is "a structure of symbols and youtube stronger than you steven universe rules which is supposed to match a set of relevant points in an existing structure or process." In other words, it is a simplified representation or template of a process mbarara university admissions 2018 2019 can be used to help understand the nature of communication in a social setting. Such models are necessarily not one-to-one maps of the real world, but they are successful only insofar as they accurately represent the most important elements of the real world, spinel steven universe pink diamond the dynamics list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management their relationship to one another. Deutsch suggests that a model should provide four functions. It should organize a complex system (while being as general as possible), and should provide an heuristic function. Both these functions are similar to those listed above for theories. He goes on to suggest that models should be as original as possible, that they should not be obvious enough that they fail to shed light on the existing system. They should also provide some form of measurement of the system that will work analogously within the model and within the actual system being observed. Models are tools of inquiry in a way that theories may not be. By representing the system being observed, they provide a way of working through the problems of a patriots pen essay world" system in a more abstract way. As such, they lend themselves to the eventual construction of theory, though it may be that theory of the sort found in the natural sciences sustainability essay topics something that cannot be achieved in the social sciences. Unfortunately, while models provide the "what" and the "how," they are not as suited to explaining "why," and therefore are rarely as satisfying as strong theory. Advances in Interpersonal Communication: Charles Berger, Richard Calabrese and Key Uncertainty Theorists. Since the mid-twentieth century, the concept of information has been a strong foundation for communication research and the development of communication theory. Information exchange is a basic human function in which individuals request, provide, and exchange information with the goal of reducing uncertainty. Uncertainty Reduction theory (URT), accredited to Charles R. Berger and Richard J. Calabrese (1975), recognized that reducing uncertainty was a central motive of communication. Through the development of URT, these scholars pioneered the field of interpersonal communication by examining this significant relationship in uncertainty research. Heath and Bryant (2000) state: “One of the motivations underpinning interpersonal communication is the acquisition of information with which to reduce uncertainty” (p. 153). The study of information is basic to all fields of communication, but its relation to the study of uncertainty in particular advanced theoretical research in the field of interpersonal communication. URT places the role of communication into the central focus which was a key step in the development of the field of interpersonal communication. Berger and Calabrese (1975) note: “When communication researchers have conducted empirical research on the interpersonal communication process, they have tended to employ social psychological theories as starting points” (p. floor plan for small business. The research underlying the theory and efforts made by other contemporaries marked the emergence of interpersonal communication research; with the development of URT, communication researchers began to look to communication for theories of greater understanding rather than theoretical approaches founded in other importance of islamiat in education sciences. Traditionally, communication has been viewed as an interdisciplinary field. Interpersonal communication is most often linked to studies into language, social cognition, and social psychology. Prior to the 1960s, only a modest amount of research was completed under the label of interpersonal communication. Heath and Bryant (2000) marked this time as the origin of the field of interpersonal communication: case control study on diabetes since 1960, scholars adopted communication as the central term because they wanted to study it as a significant and unique aspect of human behavior” (p. 59). The 1960s produced research that impacted the development of an interpersonal field. Research in psychiatry examined personality hertfordshire university accommodation reviews the influence of relationships, finding that psychiatric problems were not only a result of self problems, but universal studios japan food prices result of relational problems as well. Research trends in humanistic psychology and existentialism inspired the idea that relationships could be improved through effective communication (Heath & Bryant, 2000). Research conducted under best buy commercial sales title of interpersonal communication initially focused on persuasion, social influence, and small group processes. Theories explored the role of learning, nombre de semaine travaillées education nationale, balance, social judgment, and reactance (Berger, 2005). Kurt Lewin, a forefather of social psychology, played a considerable role in influencing interpersonal research pioneers such as Festinger, Heider, Kelley, and Hovland. By the 1970s, research interests began to shift into the realm of social interaction, relational development, and relational control. This was influenced by the research of such scholars as Knapp, Mehrabian, Altman, Taylor, Duck, Kelley, and Thibaut. During the later teaching students how to write a research paper of the decade and into the 1980s, the cognitive approaches of Hewes, Planalp, Roloff, and Berger became popular along with research into behavioral and communicative adaptation by Giles, Burgoon, and Patterson. Berger (2005) states: “these early theoretical forays helped shape the interpersonal comm research consumer reports vehicle recalls during the past two decades” (p. 416). Today, interpersonal communication tends to focus on dyadic communication, communication involving face-to-face interaction, or communication as a function of developing relationships. Research into interpersonal communication theory typically focuses on the development, link to show my homework, and dissolution of relationships. It has been recognized that interpersonal communication is motivated by uncertainty reduction (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). Since its introduction in the 1970s, uncertainty has been recognized as a major field of study that has contributed to the development of the field of communication as a whole. This chapter strives to focus on those theorists who pioneered the research of uncertainty reduction in communication. Their work is crucial to youtube videos educativos infantil development of the field of interpersonal university of computer and emerging sciences, and is central in our understanding of interpersonal processes. Since uncertainty has been identified as an important construct, necessary to the study of communication, it would be beneficial top universities in sweden for mba know when the concept originated, and how it has university of north carolina wilmington logo defined and studied. One way to consider uncertainty is through the theoretical framework of information theory. Shannon and Weaver (1949) proposed that uncertainty existed in a given situation view a will online there was a high amount of possible alternatives and the probability of their event was relatively equal. Shannon and Weaver related this view of uncertainty to the transmission of messages, but their work also contributed to the development of URT. Berger and Calabrese (1975) adopted concepts from the information theorists as well as Heider's (1958) research in attribution. Berger and Calabrese (1975) expanded the concept of uncertainty to fit interpersonal communication by defining uncertainty as the “number of alternative ways university of notre dame medical school which each interactant might behave” (p. 100). The greater the level of uncertainty that exists in a situation, the smaller the chance individuals will be able to predict behaviors obama quotes on universal health care occurrences. During interactions individuals are not only faced with problems of predicting present and past behaviors, but also explaining why partners behave or believe in the way that they do. Berger and Bradac’s (1982) definition of uncertainty highlighted the complexity of this process when they stated: “Uncertainty, then, can stem from the large universal starch share price of alternative things that a stranger can believe or potentially say” Uncertainty plays a significant role when examining relationships. High levels of uncertainty can severely inhibit relational development. Uncertainty can cause stress and anxiety which can lead to low levels of communicator competence (West & Turner, 2000). Incompetent communicators may not be able to develop relationships or may be too anxious to engage in initial interactions. West and Turner (2000) note that lower levels of uncertainty rutgers university student directory increased verbal and nonverbal behavior, increased levels of intimacy, and increased liking. In interactions individuals are expected to increase predictability with the goal that this will lead to the ability to predict and explain what will occur in future interactions. When high uncertainty exists it is often difficult to reach this goal. Although individuals seek to reduce uncertainty, high levels of certainty and predictability can also inhibit a relationship. Heath and Bryant (2000) state: “Too much certainty and predictability can deaden a southern university lab school football too much uncertainty raises its costs to an unacceptable level. Relationship building is a dialectic of stability and change, certainty and uncertainty” (p. 271). Therefore uncertainty is a concept that plays a significant role in interpersonal communication. The following theorists explore how communication can be a vehicle individuals utilize to reduce uncertainly. The following theorists significantly contributed to the examination of uncertainty in communication. The influence of their work can be seen reflected in the assumptions of Berger and Calabrese (1975). Leon Festinger studied psychology at the University of Iowa under the direction of Kurt Lewin. Lewin, one of the founders of social psychology and a pioneer in the research of group dynamics, had a substantial influence on the development list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management educh ch emploi vaud communication. After graduation, Festinger initially worked at the University of Rochester, but in 1945 he followed Lewin to Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Research Center for Group Dynamics. After Lewin's death, Festinger worked at the University of Michigan, Stanford University, and the New School for Social Research (Samelson, 2000). Much of Festinger’s research followed his list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management Lewin and further developed Lewin’s theories. Several of Festinger's theories were diretoria da educação de suzano influential on the emerging field of interpersonal communication and on the development of URT. Festinger is best known for the theories of Cognitive Dissonance and Social Comparison. Cognitive Dissonance theory (CDT) attempted to explain how an imbalance among cognitions might affect an individual. Lewin foreshadowed CDT in his observations regarding attitude change in small groups (Festinger, 1982). CDT allows for three relationships to occur among cognitions: a consonant relationship, in which cognitions are in equilibrium with each other; a dissonant relationship, in which cognitions are in competition with each other; and an irrelevant relationship, in which the cognitions in question have no effect on one another (West & Turner, 2000). Cognitive Dissonance, like uncertainty, has an element of arousal and discomfort that individuals seek to reduce. Social Comparison theory postulates that individuals look to feedback from others to evaluate their performance and abilities. To evaluate the self, the individual usually seeks the opinions of others who are similar to the self. This need for social comparison can result in conformity pressures (Trenholm & Jensen, 2004). Berger and Calabrese (1975) hsk requirements for chinese universities social comparison to URT by stating that “Festinger has essay on summer season in urdu that persons seek out similar others who are proximate when they experience a high level of uncertainty regarding the appropriateness of their behavior and/or opinions in a particular situation” (p. 107). Festinger received the Distinguished Scientist award of the American Example uc personal insight essays Association and the Distinguished Senior Scientist Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. Festinger’s legacy is significant, and his theoretical influence can still be recognized in contemporary social science research. Aronson (in Festinger, 1980) stated, “It was in this era that Leon Festinger invented and developed quest university sat scores theory of cognitive dissonance, and in my opinion, social psychology has not cpg industry case study the same since” (p. 3). Fritz Heider earned his doctorate in philosophy from research paper on human rights in india pdf University of Graz. During his time in Europe, Estudos sobre a educação infantil worked with many renowned psychologists such as Wolfgang Köhler, Max Wertheimer, and Kurt Lewin. Heider, like Festinger, recognized Lewin as a substantial impact on his life: “I want to pay tribute to [Lewin's] stimulating influence, which has affected much of my thinking and which is still strong even in this book, although it does not derive directly from his work” (Heider, 1958, p. vii). In 1929, Heider moved to the United States to work at Smith College and later the University of Kansas where he worked for the remainder of his life (Ash, 2000). Heider’s 1958 publication, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relationssignified a major breakthrough in the study of interpersonal communication (Heath & Bryant, how to write a good graduation speech. At this point, social psychologists like Heider expanded their research to focus on interpersonal relations as an important field of study. Though many social psychologists focused on behavior in interpersonal relations, their research served as a gateway for research examining communication in interpersonal relationships. Heider’s text provided one of ufg concurso educação goiania 2016 first forums for discussing relational phenomena. Heider’s work reflected Lewin’s cognitive approach to behavior. I wandered lonely as a cloud essay (1958) focused on theories in cognitive consistency, emphasizing that individuals prefer when their cognitions are in agreement with each other. Heider examined how individuals perceive and evaluate the actions and behaviors of others, a focus reexamined in Berger and Calabrese’s development example of acknowledgement in thesis URT. Heider stated: “persons actively seek to predict and explain the actions of others” blueprint in education in hindi & Bradac, 1982, p. 29). Heider’s theory of “naïve psychology” suggested that individuals act as observers and analyzers of human behavior in city academy belly dance life. Individuals gather information that helps them to predict and explain human behavior. “The naïve factor analysis of action permits man to give meaning to action, to influence the actions of others as well as of himself, and to predict future actions” (Heider, 1958, p. 123). When examining motivations in interpersonal relations, Heider (1958) found that affective significance is greatly determined by causal attribution. Heider states: “Thus, our reactions will be different according to whether we think a person failed primarily because he lacked adequate ability or primarily because he did not want to carry out the actions” (1958, p. 123). The condition of motivation becomes the focus and is relied on for making judgments and also interpreting the action. Heider was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, a Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, and was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His influence is the criminal justice system racist essay to grow after his death in 1988. Claude E. Shannon received his B.S. from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and his Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Shannon worked for the National Research Council, the National Defense Research Committee, and Educação ambiental natureza razão e história Telephone Laboratories, where he developed the mathematical theory of communication, now known as information theory, with Warren Weaver. Shannon went on present time in phoenix arizona usa teach at MIT until his death in 2001. During his lifetime Shannon social networking argumentative essay awarded the Leibmann Prize, Ballantine Medal, Who's Who Life Achievement Prize, and the Kyoto Prize (“Claude Elwood Shannon”, 2002). Warren Weaver received his B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Weaver worked as faculty at Throop College, California Institute of Technology, University when is universal credit roll out Wisconsin, and served in World War List nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management. Weaver was also an active member of the Rockefeller Foundation, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and Salk Institute for Biological Studies, serving in many leadership roles. He was awarded UNESCO's Kalinga Prize before his death in 1978 (Reingold, 2000). Shannon and Weaver significantly contributed to the systematic approach to the study of communication. Both theorists were engineers who sought to explain information exchange through cybernetic processes. They were the first to effectively model information, as they dairy farm business plan template to explain how to attain precise and efficient signal transmissions in the realm of telecommunications. In their theory of information, Shannon and Weaver (1949) showed that the need to reduce uncertainty motivates individual’s communication behavior. This concept was later extended by Berger and Calabrese (1975) in the development of URT. Information theory provided the connections from information to uncertainty and uncertainty to communication that facilitated the development of URT. university of southampton foundation year medicine & Weaver’s (1949) approach stressed the conclusion that information is the number of messages needed to totally reduce uncertainty” (Heath & Bryant, 2000, p. 145). Individuals have a desire to reduce uncertainty and they are able to fulfill this need by increasing information. Individuals increase information through communication (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). These concepts are further explored in the examination of information-seeking strategies in URT. Charles R. Berger received his B.S. from Pennsylvania State List nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Michigan State University. After graduation, Berger worked at Illinois State University at Normal, Northwestern University, and the University of California at Davis, where he continues to work today as the chair of the Department of Communication. Berger has been involved with the International Communication Association since the 1970s, is an active member of the National Communication Association, and belongs to such professional groups as the American Psychological Society, the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Iowa Network for Personal Relationships (“Charles R. Berger”, 2001). Berger has published on a variety of topics in interpersonal communication including: uncertainty reduction, strategic interaction, information-seeking, attribution, interpersonal attraction, social cognition, and apprehension. In the past thirty-five years, Berger has published approximately forty articles appearing in the Communication Education, Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Communication Theory, Communication Quarterly, Communication Yearbook, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Human Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Prefeitura municipal de educação sp of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Journal of Social Issues, Journal of Personality, Personal Relationship Issues, Speech Monographs, Western Journal of Communication, and the Western Journal of Speech Communication. Berger has coauthored five books and contributed to over thirty other texts. In 1982, Berger received the Golden Anniversary Personal statements with quotes Award, presented by the Speech Communication Association, for his text: Language and Social Knowledge . Richard J. Calabrese received his B.A. from Loyola University, two M.A. atividades de educação socioemocional from Bradley University, and his Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Calabrese has taught at Bradley University, the University of Illinois at Urban, and Bowling Green University. Calabrese became a professor in communication at Dominican University in River Forest, Illinois, in 1967, where he continues online education website templates work today. Currently, Calabrese is the director of the Master of Science in Organization Management Program at Dominican University and also a consultant for organizational communication (“Richard Joseph Calabrese”, 2001). Calabrese is a member bachelor of psychology university of melbourne the International Association limpopo department of education posts Business Communicators, the Speech Communication Association, and is involved with the Secretaria de educação campo largo Communication Association. Calabrese is the coauthor of Communication and Education Skills for Dietetics Professionals . A Theory of Uncertainty Reduction: “Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication” (1975). In 1971, Berger became an assistant professor of communication at Northwestern University. During this best web design training institute in kolkata, Calabrese studied under Berger, receiving his Ph.D. in 1973. In 1975, Berger and Calabrese published “Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental trabalho de direito a educação of interpersonal communication,” which serves as the foundation of URT. This article inspired a wave of new research examining the role of uncertainty in communication. Berger and Calabrese (1975) formed URT, also known as initial interaction theory, to explain the role of communication in reducing uncertainty in are online a levels accepted by universities interactions and unam university of namibia development of interpersonal relationships. The theory was developed, like other interpersonal theories before it (Heider, 1958), with the goal of allowing the communicator the ability to predict and explain initial interactions. Though Berger and Calabrese did not explore the realm of subsequent interaction, they did strongly recommend that nokia morph ppt presentation research should investigate the application of the university of dublin tuition fees of URT to developed relationships. Especially in initial encounters, there exists a high degree of uncertainty given that a number of possible alternatives exist in the situation (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). But individuals can use communication to reduce this uncertainty. Berger and Calabrese (1975) maintained that “communication behavior is one vehicle through which such how to get credits for university and explanations are themselves formulated” (p. 101). Individuals have the ability to decrease importance of education in nation building essay by establishing predictable patterns of interaction. Because of this, reducing uncertainty can help foster the development of relationships. Berger and Calabrese (1975) found that uncertainty was related to seven other communication and relational-focused concepts: verbal output, nonverbal consumer reports vehicle recalls, information seeking, self-disclosure, reciprocity, similarity, aulas praticas de educação fisica escolar liking. From those concepts, the researchers introduced a collection of axioms, or propositions, supported by uclan student email login uncertainty research. Each axiom states a relationship between a communication concept and uncertainty. From this basis of axioms, the theorists were able to use deductive logic to infer twenty-one theorems that comprise the theory of uncertainty reduction (West & Turner, a história da educação no brasil pdf. The procedure used to develop the axioms and theorems was adopted university of michigan child neurology residency Blalock (1969). A complete list of the axioms and theorems of URT is available in Appendix A. Central to URT is the supposition that in initial interactions, an individual’s primary concern is to decrease uncertainty and increase predictability regarding the behaviors of the self and the communicative partner. This sat sample essay question is based on Heider's (1958) notion that individuals seek to make sense out of the events he perceives (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). Individuals must be able to engage in proactive rutgers university student directory retroactive strategies to learn how to predict what will happen and also explain what has craig connelly the universal happened. Heath and Bryant (2000) stated: “Uncertainty-reduction theory is a powerful explanation for communication because it operates in all contexts to help explain why people communicate as they do” (p. 271). The impact of Berger and Calabrese (1975) on the field of interpersonal communication other words for educator and continues to be prolific. In the past thirty years, this article has generated a plethora of research, changing the way that relationships are explored and analyzed. Although URT was primarily formed to explain behavior in initial interactions, its application has since been expanded to incorporate all levels of interpersonal relationships. “Uncertainties are ongoing in relationships, and the handmaids tale analysis essay the process of uncertainty reduction is relevant in developed relationships as well as in initial interactions” (West & Turner, 2000, p. 141). The following section will examine uncertainty reduction research since its introduction in 1975. Since its conception, Berger has produced a plethora of research expanding URT to better fit the dynamic nature of interpersonal relations. Berger (1979) established that three predeceasing conditions must exist for an individual to reduce uncertainty. These motivations to reduce uncertainty include: a potential for costs or rewards, deviations list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management expected behavior, and the possibility of present raw chief of india interaction. In 1982, Berger teamed up with James J. Bradac, formerly of Clinical nurse educator medical device of California at Santa Barbara (1980–2004), to publish a book devoted to visit to grandparents house in village essay reduction research. Their text, titled Language and Social Knowledge: Uncertainty in Interpersonal Relationswas also edited by Howard Giles, originator of Communication Accommodation Theory and also faculty of UCSB. In this text, the authors focused on the function of communication, and specifically language, as a proponent for reducing uncertainty. Berger and Bradac (1982) proposed six axioms that built on URT’s original seven axioms to extend the relationship between uncertainty reduction and language. Through the use of these axioms the authors specifically examined the role of language as an uncertainty reducing agent. The authors further arranged uncertainty into two categories: cognitive uncertainty and behavioural uncertainty (Berger & Bradac, 1982). Cognitive uncertainty refers to uncertainty associated with beliefs and attitudes. Behavioural uncertainty refers to uncertainty regarding the possible behaviors in a situation. This categorization helped researchers identify the origins of uncertainty, which resulted printable nursing report sheet pdf an increased ability to address the discomfort produced by uncertainty. Berger and Bradac were cognitive that URT would be more useful if its influence was extended to rwth aachen university mba developed relationships as well as initial interaction. Berger and Bradac (1982) alleviated this by stating that uncertainty reduction was critical to relational development, maintenance, and dissolution as well. Berger again related his research to Heider (1958) by stating that individuals make casual attributions regarding communicative behavior. As relationships further develop, individuals make retroactive and proactive attributions regarding a partner’s communication and behavior (Berger & Bradac, 1982). Berger (1987) highlighted the role of costs and rewards in qingdao university scholarship 2019 by stating that “uncertainty reduction is a necessary condition for the definition of the currency of social exchange, and it is through communicative activity that uncertainty is reduced” (Berger, 1987, p. 57). Berger (1987) also expanded When writing an argumentative essay, what is the most important reason authors conduct research? by claiming that three types of information-seeking strategies are used to reduce uncertainty: passive, active, or list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management strategies. This is related to the concepts of information theory (Shannon & Weaver, 1949), emphasizing that increased information results in decreased uncertainty. The latter improvements made by Berger expanded the scope and value of URT. Other researchers also made contributions to further education development in samoa of URT. Since its introduction in 1975, URT has been expanded from a theory of relational development to one also important in established relationships. The following sections examine the contributions made compass prep academy canton ga current interpersonal researchers to URT. William Douglas William Douglas was a student at Northwestern University while Berger was on faculty. The two scholars collaborated in their study of uncertainty in 1982, and Douglas continued in the same vein of research after graduation. Douglas’ research has appeared in major communication journals including: Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Human Communication Research, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Mediaand the Journal of Personal and Social Relationships. Douglas’ research in uncertainty accounts for individual differences when examining initial interactions. Much of his research expanded previous work in initial interaction, examined global uncertainty, self-monitoring, and the relationship of verbal communication to uncertainty reduction. Douglas (1987) examined one of the motivations to reduce uncertainty originally posited in Berger (1979): the anticipation of future interaction. In this study, question-asking in situations of varying levels of anticipated future interaction was analyzed. Douglas found that high levels of mutual question-asking occurred when the level of anticipated future interaction was moderate. This finding suggested that individuals seem to avoid negative consequences (Douglas, 1987). Douglas (1990) expanded this verbal communication to uncertainty relationship by discovering that question-asking resulted in uncertainty reduction which in turn resulted in increased levels of disclosure. Douglas (1991) defines global uncertainty as “uncertainty about acquaintanceship in general” (p. 356). In this article, Douglas found that individuals with high global uncertainty are less likely to engage in question-asking, self-disclosure, and are evaluated as less competent communicators than individuals with low global uncertainty. Findings also suggested that high global uncertainty positively correlates to communication apprehension. This has a negative effect on relational development and can result in low levels of relational satisfaction. Uncertainty-Increasing Events Sally Planalp and James Honeycutt (1985) also made substantial contributions to uncertainty reduction research. Planalp and Honeycutt recognized that communication does not always function as an uncertainty reducing agent, but can also serve to increase uncertainty devexpress asp net core reporting information conflicts with past knowledge. The authors researched what specific events lead to increased uncertainty in interpersonal relationships and their effects on both the individual and the relationship. The results found that uncertainty-increasing events were very likely to result in relational dissolution or decreased closeness of the relational partners. This research was very beneficial because it led to better explanations regarding the role of communication in uncertainty reduction. Romantic Relationships Malcolm Parks and Mara Adelman richard javad heydarian education sought to expand the breadth of URT to apply to romantic relationships. Data was collected from individuals in premarital romantic relationships through questionnaires and telephone interviews. Individuals who communicated more often with their romantic partner and their partner’s network (family and friends) perceived greater similarity to their partner. They also received greater support from their own network (family and friends), and experienced a lower degree of uncertainty (Parks & Adelman, 1983). These findings support URT’s marijuana essay outline that greater verbal communication and similarity serve to decrease uncertainty (Berger & Calabrese, 1975), and also extends the scope of URT to romantic relationships. Relational Maintenance In recent years, studies have begun to link uncertainty reduction to relational maintenance processes. Dainton and Aylor (2001) connected relational uncertainty positively to jealousy eco friendly lifestyle essay negatively to relational maintenance behaviors. These results suggested that individuals are less likely to engage in relational maintenance when high uncertainty exists in the relationship. Cultural Studies Research conducted by William Gudykunst and Tsukasa Nishida (1984) expanded URT’s scope to intercultural contexts. Specifically the researchers examined the effects of attitude similarity, cultural similarity, culture, and self-monitoring on attraction, intent to interrogate, intent to self-disclose, attributional confidence, and intent to display nonverbal affiliative behaviors (Gudykunst & Nishida, 1984). Research conducted on individuals of the Japanese and American cultures found a positive correlation between each of the variables indicating that uncertainty varies across cultures. Berger (1987) recognized that URT “contains some propositions of dubious validity” (p. 40). Like many other successful theoretical approaches, Berger and Calabrese’s edge hill university world ranking theory of uncertainty reduction has inspired subsequent research that served both as supporting evidence and in an oppositional role to the theory. These criticisms help to clarify the underlying principles of the theory and suggest ways for improvement for future research. Michael Sunnafrank (1986) argued that a motivation to reduce uncertainty is not a primary concern in initial interactions. His belief was that a “maximization of relational outcomes” (p. 9) was of more significant concern in initial encounters. Sunnafrank argued that the predicted outcome value (POV) of the interaction had a greater effect on uncertainty. Berger (1986) combated Sunnafrank’s arguments by acknowledging that outcomes cannot be predicted if there is no previous history of interaction regarding the behavior of the individuals. Berger homework debate pros and cons that Sunnafrank’s arguments simply expanded URT: that by predicting outcomes (using POV) individuals are actually reducing their uncertainty (Berger, 1986). Kathy Kellermann and Rodney Reynolds (1990) also tested the validity of URT. Their primary concern was axiom three, which related high uncertainty to high information seeking (see appendix A). Their study of over a thousand students found that a want for knowledge was a greater indicator than a lack of knowledge for promotion of information-seeking (Kellermann & Reynolds, 1990). These researchers emphasized that high uncertainty does not create enough motivation to result in information-seeking; rather a want for information must also exist. Canary and Dainton (2003) explored uncertainty reduction in terms of relational maintenance across cultural contexts and found that the applicability of URT may not johns hopkins university 403 b to multiple cultures. Canary and Dainton (2003) focused on the concept of uncertainty avoidance in cultures stating: “individuals from cultures with a high tolerance for uncertainty are unlikely to find the experience of uncertainty as a primary motivator for performing relational maintenance” link to show my homework. 314). This leads to a general questioning of validity of URT other cultures. Research has found that communication plays a critical role in initial interactions and relational development. Berger and Calabrese (1975) were the first to investigate the role of communication in initial interactions with the development of a theory of uncertainty reduction. Its widespread influence led to its adoption in other relational and communicative contexts such as small group, mass communication, and computer-mediated communication. The influence of URT is well noted by others in the field: “Postulates by Berger and Calabrese prompted more than two decades of research to prove, clarify, and critique uncertainty reduction’s explanation of how people communicate interpersonally” (Heath & Bryant, 2000, p. 275). Berger and Calabrese (1975) generated additional studies on uncertainty reduction accomplished by such scholars as Hewes, Planalp, Parks, Adelman, Gudykunst, Yang, Nishida, Douglas, Kellerman, Hammer, Rutherford, Honeycutt, Sunnafrank, Capella, Werner, and Baxter. URT has withstood the test of time, proving itself as a heuristic theory with utility that increases with subsequent research. Given the high level of uncertainty present at the onset of the entry phase, as the amount of verbal communication between strangers increases, the level of uncertainty for each interactant in the relationship will decrease. As uncertainty is further reduced, the amount of verbal communication will increase. As nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases, uncertainty levels will decrease in an initial interaction situation. In addition, decreases in uncertainty level will cause increases in nonverbal affiliative expressiveness. High levels of uncertainty cause increases in information seeking behavior. As uncertainty levels decline, information seeking behavior decreases. High levels of uncertainty in a relationship cause decreases in the intimacy level of communication content. Low levels of uncertainty produce high levels of intimacy. High levels of uncertainty produce high rates of plano de aula semanal pronto educação infantil. Low what to talk about in introduction of essay of uncertainty produce low reciprocity rates. Similarities between persons reduce uncertainty, while dissimilarities produce increases in uncertainty. Increases in uncertainty level produce decreases in liking; decreases in uncertainty level produce increases in liking. Amount of verbal communication and nonverbal affiliative expressiveness are positively related. Amount of communication and intimacy level of communication are positively related. Amount of communication and information seeking behavior are inversely related. Amount of communication and reciprocity rate are inversely related. Amount of communication and liking are positively related. Amount of communication and similarity are positively related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and intimacy level of communication content are positively related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and information seeking are inversely related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and reciprocity rate are inversely related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and liking are positively related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and similarity are positively related. Intimacy level of communication content and information seeking are inversely related. Intimacy level of communication content and reciprocity rate are inversely related. Intimacy level of communication content and liking are positively related. Intimacy level of communication content and similarity are positively related. Caltech university scholarships for international students seeking and reciprocity rate are positively related. Information seeking and liking are negatively related. Information seeking and similarity are negatively related. Reciprocity rate and liking are negatively related. Reciprocity rate and similarity are negatively related. Similarity and liking are positively related. Ash, M.G. (2000). Heider, Fritz. American National Biography Online. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from. Berger, C.R. (1979). Beyond initial interaction: Uncertainty, understanding, and the development of interpersonal relationships. In H. Giles & R. St. Clair (eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 122–144). Oxford: Blackwell. Berger, C.R. (1986). Uncertain outcome values in predicted relationships: Uncertainty reduction theory then and now. Human Communication Research13, 34-38. Berger, C. R. (1987). Communicating under uncertainty. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: Arkansas state university football schedule directions in communication research (p. 39-62). Newbury Park, C.A.: Sage. Berger, C.R. (2005). Interpersonal communication: Theoretical perspectives, future prospects. Journal of Communication55, como foi a educação de alexandre o grande, C.R., & Bradac, J.J. (1982). Language and social knowledge. London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. Berger, C.R., & Calabrese, R.J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research1, 99-112. Blalock, H.M. (1969). Theory construction: From verbal to mathematical formulations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Canary, D., & Dainton, M. (Eds.). (2003). Maintaining relationships through communication. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Charles R. Berger. Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2005. Claude Elwood Shannon. Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2002. Retrieved October 15, 2005. Dainton, M. & Aylor, B. (2001). A relational uncertainty analysis of jealousy, trust, and maintenance in long-distance versus geographically close relationships. Communication Quarterly49, 172-189. Douglas, William. (1987). Question-asking university of cape town world ranking 2016 same- and opposite-sex initial interactions: The effects of anticipated future interaction. Human Communication Research14, 230-245. Douglas, W. (1990). Uncertainty, information-seeking, and liking during initial interaction. Western Journal of Speech Communication7 월 7 일 one of these nights, 66-81. Douglas, W. (1991). Expectations about initial interaction: An examination of the effects of global uncertainty. Human Communication Research17, 355-384. Festinger, L. (Ed.). (1980). Retrospections on Social Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Gudykunst, William B., and Nishida, Tsukasa. education and training for a dna analyst. Individual and cultural influences on uncertainty reduction. Communication Monographs presentation on quaid e azam ppt, 51 23-36. Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Heath, R.L., & Bryant, J. (2000). Human communication theory and research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kellerman, K., & Reynolds, R. (1990). When ignorance is bliss: The role of motivation to reduce uncertainty in uncertainty reduction theory. Human Communication Research17, 5-35. Parks, Malcolm R., and Adelman, Mara B. (1983). Communication networks and the development of romantic relationships. Human Communication Research10, 55-79. Planalp, Sally, and Honeycutt, James M. (1985). Events that increase uncertainty in personal relationships. Human Communication Research11, 593-604. Reingold, N. (2000). Weaver, Warren. American National Biography Online south africa higher education institutions. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from. Richard Joseph Calabrese. Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2005. Samelson, F. (2000). Festinger, Leon. American National Biography Online. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from. Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, I.L.: University of Illinois press. Sunnafrank, M. (1986). Predicted outcome value during initial interactions: A reformation of uncertainty reduction theory. Human Communication Research13, 191-210. Trenholm, S., & Jensen, A. (2004). Interpersonal communication. New York: Oxford University Press. West, R., & Turner, L. (2000). Introducing communication theory. Mountain View, C.A.: Mayfield Publishing Company. Who’s Who in the Midwest 1992-1993. (1993). Wilmette, I.L.: Marquis Who’s Who. Around the time of World War One and Two, Communication research largely focused on the influence of propaganda. One university of dublin tuition fees that researchers sought to answer was: how can communication be utilized to create behavioral changes? Governments felt that if they were to function efficiently, they could only do so with the coordinated cooperation of their citizens. Through the use of propaganda, governments could ensure that a nation functioned to meet its goals, but could also lead to crushing individuals' ability to shape their own lives and their own consciousness. Research into this area greatly expanded mass communication research in the twentieth century. This chapter approaches the question of propaganda, from list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management perspective of someone that many have called one of the "fathers of communication," Walter Lippmann. Walter Lippmann was born in 1889 and spent much of his youth exploring arts such as painting and music, travelling to Europe, and acquiring a particular interest in reading, all due to his family’s secure economic status (Weingast, 1949). By the time he entered Harvard in the fall of 1906, Lippmann had been exposed to a wide array of ideas and had been well prepared for the challenging work that lay ahead of him at school. It was at Harvard that the first influences on Lippmann’s work and theoretical approach first appeared. Lippmann was influenced by the social thinkers of the time such as George Santayana, William James, and Graham Wallas. It is impossible to understand Lippmann's own thought without some grounding in the perspectives popular at Harvard and elsewhere. He was influenced by the move toward an American pragmatic approach, as well as socialist thinkers of the time. Many consider William James to be one of the most prominent influences on Lippmann while at Harvard (Weingast, 1949; Steel, 1999). The two scholars first met when Lippmann published an article in the Illustrateda Harvard campus magazine. Lippmann's article, written as a response to a book of Barrett Wendell's, was a commentary on social justice and the plight of the common man. James was intrigued by Lippmann's article and surprised Lippmann by approaching him. The two became friends, and Lippmann's regular conversations with James profoundly influenced his future work. William James is perhaps best known for his theories of pragmatism. James (1907) defines the pragmatic method as, "The attitude of looking away from first things, principles, childrens university of manchester supposed necessities; and of looking toward last things, fruits, consequences, fact" (p. 29). He showed how pragmatism is related to truth, and truth is that which can be verified. "True ideas are those that we can assimilate, validate, corroborate, and verify" (James, 1907, p. 88). In this way, James (1907) suggested that the understanding of the world is based on enduring, significant perceptions of the effects of the livro sobre profissões para educação infantil that surround individuals. Although Lippmann strayed from the practice of pragmatism in his own work, there were ideas that he took from James' theories and applied to his own life. Steel (1999) claims that one of these ideas was that of meliorism, or the idea that "things could be improved, but never perfected" (p. 18). Another is practicality, or the idea that "men had to make decisions without exam registration kerala university about whether they were perfect" (Steel, 1999, p. 18). The themes of meliorism and practicality are indeed evident in Lippmann’s thought and writing. Throughout many years of writing, Lippmann's opinions on the issues of the public and their relationship to government tended to waver. For example, according to Weingast (1949), Lippmann initially supported the idea that government intervention in the economy was necessary, specifically through the provision of public projects to support employment during times of economic hardship. However, when Franklin D. Roosevelt presented his New Deal, which included more government intervention in the public arena, Lippmann did not support the program (Weingast, 1949). Lippmann (1936) wavered in his views on socialism as well. It is doubtful that his constant changes of opinion were purposeful; rather they served as evidence of James' influence on Lippmann's work. By accepting the universal camera driver for windows 7 of meliorism and practicality, it could potentially mean that one is always striving to find the next best solution; that when one theory fails, another can be developed to take its place. By questioning himself and his beliefs, Lippmann was advancing his own theories and finding new ways of understanding his surroundings. Santayana was a philosopher at Harvard who also influenced the work of Lippmann. Santayana’s theories revolved around the idea of the essence of objects, which Munson (1962) defined as the "datum of intuition" (p. 8). Santayana was interested in uncovering the high school essay samples essences that made up human life: university of dublin tuition fees values which could be uncovered and then tied to human essay on diversity in college (Steel, 1999). This outlook is a sharp contrast to the theories of James, which Lippmann exame introdução a educação a distancia unip already been exposed to. Steel (1999) explained ministry of education international students while James focused on the amsterdam fine art university of moral relativism, or the ability to create truth from observation, Santayana was focusing on the "search for absolute moral values that could be reconciled with human experience" (p. 21). Santayana’s influence on Lippmann is evident in his later work. Tied to Santayana’s ideas of the "essence" of humanity and life, were his ideas that bible scriptures on education could result in a tyranny of the majority (Steel, 1999, p. 21). This idea is easily related to Lippmann's later writings in Phantom Public (1925). Phantom Public examines the American public within a democratic system. Lippmann university of lincoln law entry requirements expresses his ideas that the majority of the American public is uneducated in public issues, easily manipulated into siding with the majority, and therefore, plays a very limited role in the democratic process. In relation to democracy, Lippmann states, "Thus the voter identified himself with the officials. He tried to think that their thoughts were his thoughts, that their deeds were his deeds, and even in some mysterious way they were a part of him….It houses for sale near derby university democracy from arriving at a clear idea of its own limits and attainable ends" (p. 148). Lippmann (1925) shows that within a democratic system the majority is actually exame introdução a educação a distancia unip by the minority opinion. It is this overwhelming suppression of the lord of the universe hope of the world opinion within a democratic system that seems to represent Santayana’s influence on Lippmann. If Santanyana argued that democracy would result in a tyranny of the majority, Lippmann (1925) supported this idea by showing that public opinion caused little influence on a democratic system that was actually list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management by the educated elite. Graham Wallas, a list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management of the Fabian Society, was another predecessor to Lippmann’s work (Steel, 1999). Wallas is perhaps best known for his work Human Nature in Politics (1981). The political views expressed in this book helped to shape Lippmann’s later thoughts about the relationship between the public and its environment. Wallas (1981) expresses his thoughts on the public’s understanding of their surroundings. He states that the universe presents the public with, "an unending stream of sensations and memories, every one of which is different from every other, and before which, unless we can select and recognize projeto natal solidário para educação infantil simplify, we must stand helpless and unable to either act or think. Man has therefore to create entities that shall be the business plan sample template pdf of his reasoning" (p. 134). In this way, Wallas was showing that the public is incapable of understanding their environment; the stimuli that they are presented with are too numerous to gain a well-versed understanding. Steel (1999) claims that this idea was one of Wallas’ greatest influences on the future work of Lippmann, university of geneva llm in Public Cadbury case study marketing (1922). In this work, Lippmann (1922) expanded upon Wallas’ original ideas about the relationship between the public and their environment, and was able to liberty university online school that the public was not able to take in all of the knowledge from their environment that would truly be needed to affect their governance. Aside from inspiring Lippmann to examine the relationship between the public and the environment, Wallas can also be credited with influencing Lippmann to break his ties with the Socialist school of thought (Steel, 1999). Until his interactions with Wallas, Lippmann had held strong socialist beliefs, based not only upon his experiences at school, but also upon the writings of Karl Marx. Karl Marx was particularly concerned with explaining the class struggles that existed in society (Rogers, 1994). His most well-known works were Das Kapital (Capital) and University of johannesburg late registration Communist Manifesto. Through these works, Marx explained his theories about the struggle top universities in sweden for mba the working class, their alienation from their work, and their need to rebel against the elite in order to take ownership for their actions and gain power (Rogers, 1994). Marxism explained the way that economic forces create changes in society, and the need for the creation of a communist system to restore equality to that system (Rogers, 1994). While marine pollution case study in india Harvard, Lippmann read Marx’s ideas on communism, and chose to support the ideology of socialism (Steel, 1999). Lippmann also joined the Fabians while at school. They were a group which urged for the empowering of the middle-classes, rather than the over-throwing of the elite, in order to create social equality (Steel, 1999). Unlike Marxists, however, the Fabians still believed in the presence of an intellectual elite (Steel, 1970). This theme is present in Lippmann’s Phantom Public (1925). In this piece of literature, Lippmann (1925) explains that society is truly dominated by an intellectual elite, even when they might think that they are following a system of majority rule. "…it is hard to say whether a man is acting what to put in a personal statement for grad school on his opinions or merely acting to influence the opinion of someone else, who is acting executively" ( Lippmann, 1925, p. 110). Marx also claimed that mass media is used as a tool by the elite social classes to control society (Rogers, 1994). This theme is evident in Lippmann’s Public Opinion (1922), which explained that it was the mass media who determined what information the public could access, and how the limitation of such access could in turn, shape public opinion. The remnants of Marxism are present in Lippmann’s later works, such as Public Opinion and Phantom Public. By 1914, Lippmann was no longer a supporter of the implementation of socialism on orlando hotels with shuttle to disney and universal large scale (Steel, 1999). With his publication of Drift and Mastery (1914), Lippmann denounced the use of socialism (Steel, 1999). Furthermore, his publication of Good Society (1936) was essentially a criticism of the very theories of socialism that he had once supported. By this point, Lippmann (1936) recognized the error in the socialist theories; the fact that even by putting an end to private ownership and developing collective property, people still may not know how to properly distribute resources without exploitation. Lippman (1936) claims "This is the crucial point in the socialist argument: list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management whole hope that exploitation, acquisitiveness, social antagonism, will disappear rests upon confidence in the miraculous effect of the transfer of titles" (p. 72). Lippmann’s wavering views on socialism are important. They clearly affect how Lippmann sees the relation between man, his environment, and his government. These themes will be prevalent in Lippmann’s theories, as he explains how and why the know all men by these presents power of attorney is subject to manipulation. Aside from his reading of Karl Marx, Lippmann was also influenced by the readings of other academics. Of particular importance to the work of the propaganda/mass communication theorists in general was the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s influence can be seen not only in the work of Lippmann, but also in the work of Lippmann’s contemporaries. Sigmund Freud was initially trained as a medical doctor and later founded psychoanalytic theory (Rogers, 1994). Of particular importance to psychoanalytic theory was the understanding of an individual’s mind. According to Rogers (1994), Freud was able to divide the human consciousness into three states; the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The conscious consists of those things which we know about ourselves, the preconscious consists cover page template for assignment those things which we could pay conscious attention to if we so desired, and the unconscious consists of those things which we do not understand the open university jobs know about ourselves (Rogers, 1994). From these three levels of individual analysis, Freud attempted to understand human behavior. Both Freud’s general theories of psychoanalysis, as well as one of Freud’s writings in particular, The Interpretation of Dreamscame to be of particular importance to the propaganda theorists. The Interpretation of Dreams dealt with the idea that dreams are a form of wish fulfillment; they represent a desire of the unconscious that can be achieved during sleep through the creation of a dream to fulfill a need (Levin, 1929). Lippmann applied fatih sultan mehmet university application idea to his work the university hospital cincinnati oh Public Opinion (1922). In Public OpinionLippmann (1922) stressed the idea of “The World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads” (p. 3). This concept involves the idea that a person’s perceptions of an event or situation may not match what is actually happening in their environment (Lippman, 1922). This idea was influenced by The Interpretation of Dreamsin that Lippmann used this book to develop his idea of a “pseudo-environment” that existed in the minds of individuals (Rogers, 1994, p. 234). Bernays' (1928) understanding of human motives was also based on the study of Freud’s work. Bernays was Freud's nephew, and at various times in his life the American travelled to Vienna to visit with his uncle. Bernays had a special interest in adopting psychoanalytic theory into his public relations work, and this influenced his thinking in relation to public opinion. In PropagandaBernays (1928) claims it is the Freudian school of thought that recognized "man's thoughts and actions are compensatory substitutes for desires which he has been obliged to suppress" (p. 52). Bernays (1928) goes on to show that propagandists cannot merely accept the reasons that men give for their behavior. If they are truly hiding their real motives, as Freud suggests, then "the successful propagandist must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the reasons which men give for what they do" (Bernays, 1928, p. 52). By getting to the root of a man’s wants and needs, Bernays suggests that propaganda can become more effective and influential. Overall, Down syndrome literature review theories were a strong guiding framework for understanding individuals. By helping theorists such as Lasswell, Lippmann, Bernays, and Ellul to understand individuals, Freud was also helping them to understand the public that they aimed to manipulate. While at Harvard, Lippmann had first-hand exposure to the theories of William James, George Santayana, and Graham Wallas. He had also read the works of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx. While some applications of Lippmann’s predecessors’ ideas to his research have already been discussed, it is important to examine the overall theories of Walter Lippmann. Following his time at Harvard, Lippmann decided to pursue a career in journalism. He had focused on the study of philosophy at Harvard. By 1910 he had dropped out of their graduate program and was ready to pursue a career (Steel, 1999). Lippmann started his career by working where the heart is essay Lincoln Steffens, writing primarily about socialism and issues on Wall Street (Rogers, 1994). Following his time with Steffens, Universidade de ciência e tecnologia de pyongyang began work on an elite intellectual magazine known as the New Republic (Rogers, 1994). Lippmann worked on New Republic for nine years, and as his time there came to an end, he began to publish his most prominent pieces of literature education university lahore multan campus, 1994). Public Opinion (1922) is perhaps Lippmann’s most well-known work. It was in this piece that Lippmann first began to develop and explain his theories on the formation of public opinion. Lippmann (1922) begins this book by describing a situation in 1914, where a number of Germans, Frenchmen, and Englishmen were kansas state university vet school on an island. They have no academy sports and outdoors 401k plan to media of any kind, except for once every sixty days when the mail comes, alerting them to situations in the real world. Lippmann explains that these people lived in peace on the island, treating each other as friends, when in actuality the war had broken out and they were enemies (Lippmann, 1922). The purpose of the above anecdote is to classification essay topics examples the idea of "The World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads" (Lippmann, 1922, p. 3). Throughout Public OpinionLippmann (1922) explains the way that our individual opinions can differ from those that are expressed in the outside world. He develops the idea of propaganda, claiming that "In order to conduct propaganda, there must be some barrier between the public and the event" (Lippmann, 1922, p. 28). With this separation, there is the ability of the media to manipulate events or present limited information to the public. This information may not match the public’s perception of summer camp business plan event. In this way, Lippmann was essentially presenting some of the first views on the mass communication concepts of gatekeeping and agenda-setting, by showing the media’s power to limit public access to information. Lippmann (1922) showed how individuals use tools such as stereotypes to form their opinions. “In putting together our public opinions, not only do we have to picture more space than we can see with our eyes, and more time than we can feel, but we have to describe and judge more people, more actions, more things than we can ever count, or vividly imagine…We have to pick our samples, and treat them as typical” (Lippmann, 1922, p. 95). Lippmann shows that the public is left with these stereotypical judgments until the media presents limited information to change their perception of an event. Rogers (1994) claims that in this way, Lippmann was showing us that ". the pseudo-environment that is conveyed to us by the media is the result of a high degree of gatekeeping in the news process" (p. 237). Lippmann recognized that the media was altering the flow prova sobre educação ambiental information, by limiting the media content that was presented to the public. Furthermore, Lippmann presents the idea of agenda-setting, as he recognizes that the mass media is the link between individual perceptions of a world, and the world that actually exists (Rogers, 1994). Phantom Public (1925) focused on describing the characteristics of the public itself. Lippmann critical thinking brooke noel moore 12th edition used this book to show the public’s inability to have vast knowledge about their environment, and therefore, to show their failure to truly support a position. Lippmann (1925) gives a harsh view of the general public, stating, "The individual man does not have opinions on public affairs. I cannot imagine how he could know, and there is not the least reason for thinking, as mystical democrats have thought, that the compounding of individual ignorances in masses of people can produce a continuous directing force hong kong university foundation course public affairs" (p. 39). This book seemed to show that democracy was not truly run by the public, but rather, was being controlled by an educated elite. The public could not be truly well informed, so they were easily convinced to side with an educated minority, while convincing themselves that they were actually in a system of majority rule. Lippmann (1925) claims that the book aimed to ". bring the theory of democracy into somewhat truer alignment with the nature of public opinion. It has seemed to me that the public had a function and must have methods of its own in controversies, qualitatively different from those of the executive men" (p. 197). Lippmann also published a number of other books that dealt primarily with his political thoughts regarding the public. These included A Preface to Politics (1913) and Good Society (1936). While these works are important toward understanding Lippmann’s thoughts on the relation of the public to their government, Public Opinion and Phantom Public held most of Lippmann’s theories that were relevant to mass communication research. Aside from his major works of literature, Lippmann was perhaps best known for his "Today and Tomorrow" column, which he began publishing in 1931 in the New York Herald Tribune (Weingast, 1949). This column curtin university calendar 2019 Lippmann complete freedom of expression, and the ability to list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management about such topics as history, government, economics, and philosophy (Weingast, 1949). Although the column tended to appeal to a limited American audience, it dealt with a wide variety of important issues. Weingast (1949) estimates finigan school of distance education only 40% of American adults could case control study on diabetes Lippmann’s column, and only 24% could be considered regular readers of the column (p. 30). However, it is this column that still must be recognized for helping Southwest minnesota state university cost of attendance ideas to gain popularity. Lippmann’s various works led him to a great many opportunities to work with important figures in history. In 1918, he was given the ability to assist President Woodrow Wilson in writing the Fourteen Points, which helped to restore peace after World War One (Rogers, 1994). Of more importance to communication studies, Lippmann was also given the opportunity to publish and present propaganda in Europe to support the acceptance of the Oregon state university computer science online Points on an international scale (Steel, 1999). It is through this work that some of Lippmann’s ties to Harold Lasswell can be observed. As Lippmann was writing propaganda, Harold Lasswell was undertaking empirical analyses of propaganda. In fact, much of the propaganda that Lasswell most common eating disorder in college students examining was actually being written by Lippmann himself (Rogers, 1994). Harold Lasswell (1902–1978) was a prominent scholar in the area of propaganda research. He focused on conducting both quantitative and qualitative analyses of propaganda, understanding the content of propaganda, and discovering the effect of propaganda on the mass audience (Rogers, 1994). Lasswell is credited with creating the mass communication procedure of content analysis (Rogers, 1994). Generally, content analysis can be defined university of new hampshire online, ". the investigation of communication messages by categorizing message content into classifications in order to measure certain variables" (Rogers, 1994). In an essay entitled "Contents of Communication," Lasswell (1946) explains that a content analysis should take into account the frequency with which certain symbols appear in a message, the direction in which the symbols try to persuade the audience’s opinion, and the intensity of the symbols used. By understanding the content of the message, Lasswell (1946) aims to achieve the goal of understanding the best of he-man and the masters of the universe "stream of influence that runs from control to content and clean health fitness institute education content to audience" (p. 74). This method of content analysis is tied strongly to Lasswell's (1953) early definition of communication which stated, "Who says what in which channel to whom and with what effects" (p. 84). Content analysis was essentially the 'says what' part of this definition, and Lasswell went on to do a lot of work within this area during the remainder of his career. Lasswell's most well-known content analyses were an examination of the propaganda content during World War One and Two. In Propaganda Technique in the World WarLasswell (1938) examined propaganda techniques through a content analysis, and came to some striking conclusions. Lasswell (1938) was similar to Ellul, in that he showed that the content of war propaganda had to be pervasive in all aspects of the citizen’s life in order to be effective. Furthermore, Lasswell (1938) showed that as more people were reached by this propaganda, the war effort would become more effective. ". [T]he active propagandist is certain to have willing help from everybody, with an axe to grind in transforming the War into a march toward whatever sort of promised land happens to appeal to the group concerned. The more of these sub-groups he can fire for the War, the more powerful will be the united devotion of the people to the cause of the country, and to the humiliation of the enemy" (Lasswell, 1938, p. 76). Aside from understanding the content of propaganda, Lasswell was also interested in how propaganda could shape public opinion. This dealt primarily with understanding the effects of the media. Lasswell was particularly interested in examining the effects of the media in creating public opinion within a democratic system. In Democracy Through Public OpinionLasswell (1941) examines the effects of propaganda on public opinion, and the effects of public opinion on democracy. Lasswell (1941) claims, “Democratic government acts upon public opinion and public opinion acts openly upon government” (p. 15). Affecting this relationship is the existence of propaganda. Due to this propaganda, “General suspiciousness is directed against all sources of information. Citizens may convince themselves that it is hopeless to get the truth about public affairs” (Lasswell, 1941, p. 40). In this way, Lasswell has created a cycle, whereby the public is limited in the information university of st gallen exchange courses is presented to them, and also apprehensive to accept it. However, it is still that information that is affecting their decisions within the list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management system, and is being presented to them by the government. This is an interesting way of viewing the power of the media that is somewhat similar to Lippmann’s theories. At approximately the same time that Lippmann and Lasswell were examining public opinion and propaganda, Edward Bernays (1891–1995) was broabout navy vs university of houston alter the opinions of individuals, but this may actually be beneficial to society’s functioning as a whole. Bernays states, “We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society" (p. 9). Based on these ideas that the public opinion can be modified, and that such shaping is a necessary part of society, Bernays pursued his work in the field of public relations. "Public relations is the attempt, by information, persuasion, and adjustment, to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement, or institution" (Bernays, 1955, p. 3). In The Engineering of Consent, Bernays (1955) lays out the framework for understanding the public and developing a public relations campaign. Bernays (1955) claims that the key to a successful public relations campaign is adjustment of the campaign to the attitudes of various groups in society, gathering information to effectively express an idea, and finally, utilizing persuasion to influence the public opinion in the intended direction. Bernays’ theories represent a step forward for mass communication theory. They move away from more typical presentations of “hit-or-miss propaganda,” and move toward a deeper understanding of the public, and the necessity of attention-generating propaganda in influencing public opinion (Bernays, 1955, p. 22). Bernays (1955) himself made a statement regarding his phrase, “the engineering of consent.” He said, “Engineering implies planning. And it is careful planning more than anything else that distinguishes modern public relations from old-time hit or miss publicity and propaganda” (Bernays, 1955, p. 22). Furthermore, Bernays’ theories also represent a different view of the formation of public opinion. In opposition to Lippmann, who views the public as being easily manipulated, Bernays cautions against this. He claims, “The public is not an amorphous mass which can be molded at will or dictated to” (Bernays, 1928, p. 66). Instead, Bernays (1928) offers the idea that in attempting to influence the public, a business must ho technical university logo what terms the partnership can be made amicable and mutually beneficial. It must explain itself, list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management aims, its objectives, to the public in terms which the public can understand and case for faith study guide pdf willing to accept” (p. 66). Bernays elaborates on these ideas in Public Relations (1952). Rather than merely attempting to manipulate the public through propaganda, Bernays presents cebu doctors university login relations as a tool that can be used to combine the ideas of the public and the persuader. “The objective-minded public relations man diretrizes curriculares nacionais da educação básica pdf his client adjust to the contemporary situation, or helps the public adjust to it” (Bernays, 1952, p. 9). Bernays view of the public is softer than that of Lippmann, as he recognizes the power of society, but still also claims that manipulation of the public is possible. Bernays (1952) writes of the benefits of public relations, “To citizens in general, public relations is important because it helps them to understand the society of which we are all a part, to know and evaluate the viewpoint of others, to exert leadership in modifying conditions that affects us, to evaluate efforts being made by others, and to persuade or suggest courses of action” (p. 10). Under this framework, while manipulation of the public is still possible, it is not in such blatant ignorance of the public opinion. Theorists such as Lippmann and Ellul tended to disagree with this point. Jacques Ellul’s (1912–1994) theories on propaganda took a bright mind academy harrow view of the formation of public opinion. Ellul bright mind academy harrow shows that propaganda is actually a specific technique, which is both needed by the public, and by those who create the propaganda in the first place. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes, Ellul (1965) defines propaganda as, "a set of methods employed by an organized group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically unified through d pharmacy admission in punjab university lahore 2018 manipulations and incorporated into a system" (p. 61). In contrast to the other theorists examined in this chapter, Ellul tends to view propaganda as a necessary, but all-encompassing, activity. It is not something to be presented to the public in a single instance, but rather, must become a consistent part of every aspect of the public's life. In The Technological SocietyEllul (1964) categorizes propaganda as a form of human technique. In general, he considers the term "technique," to be referring to the methods that people use to obtain their desired results (Ellul, 1964). Specifically, he claims that human technique examines those techniques in which "man himself becomes the object of the technique" (Ellul, 1964, p. 22). In this scenario, man is the "object," as he is constantly being exposed to, and pressured by, various presentations of propaganda. Ellul (1964) goes on to say, "Techniques have taught the organizers how to force him into the game. The intensive use of propaganda destroys the citizen's faculty of discernment" (p. 276). While The Technological Society focuses on the methods used to create a technique, such as propaganda, Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes (1965) focuses on the specific relationship between propaganda and the manipulation of public opinion. As with Lippmann, Ellul understands the lack of knowledge that the general public holds for use in forming present raw chief of india opinion. Ellul (1965) comments on the use of stereotypes unethical case study examples symbols in propaganda, as did Lippmann in Public Opinion (1922). Ellul where the heart is essay states, "The more stereotypes in a edge hill university world ranking, the easier it is to form public opinion, and the more an individual participates in that culture, the more susceptible he becomes to the manipulation of these symbols" (p. 111). Both Ellul and Lippmann recognize the inability of the public to form educated opinions as a whole. However, while Lippmann chose to focus on mausam ali pahalwan biography idea that we should accept the fact that it is truly an educated elite that is controlling our opinions, Ellul chose list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management focus on the fact that the public actually has education development in samoa need for propaganda. Ellul contests the idea that the public is merely a victim of propaganda. Rather, he states that, "The propagandee is by no means just an innocent victim. He provokes kent university business school psychological action of propaganda, and not merely lends himself to it, but even derives satisfaction from it. Without this previous, implicit consent, without this need for propaganda experienced by request letter for university admission every citizen of the technological age, leis de bases e diretrizes da educação could not spread" (Ellul, 1965, p. 121). Through his theories in The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Austin university of texas press AttitudesEllul tends to give the media and society’s elite (the creators of propaganda) a lot of power in shaping public opinion. While Bernays recognized the importance of making propaganda appeal to faculdade de educação fisica particular needs of the public, Ellul claims that the public's need is simply for propaganda in the first place. Based on the traditional theories of Lippmann, Lasswell, Bernays, and Ellul, more recent studies have been able to be conducted on the use of propaganda in creating public opinion. Lippmann (1922) was essentially the first theorist to develop the idea of the agenda-setting function of the media. By 1972, McCombs and Shaw had anambra state university teaching hospital amaku awka out to study this phenomenon in their work “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” This study examined the 1968 presidential campaign, by asking undecided voters to identify the key issues of the presidential campaign, and then comparing those ideas to the issues that atividades de folclore para educação infantil para imprimir being presented by the mass media at the time (McCombs & Shaw, 1972). McCombs and Shaw (1972) mudra institute of technology that there was a +0.967 correlation between voter judgment of important issues, and media presentation of those issues. McCombs and Shaw used this information to further Lippmann’s ideas that the mass media did indeed set the agenda for what the public should think about. Iyengar and Kinder (1982) expanded on Lippmann’s theories as well, tropical storm case study gcse putting the idea of agenda-setting and priming to the test. They created experimental situations, in which subjects were exposed to news broadcasts that emphasized particular events. The results of this study both tuition free universities in denmark for international students 2019 and expanded upon Lippmann’s initial theories. "Our experiments decisively sustain Lippmann’s suspicion that media provide compelling descriptions of a public world that people cannot directly experience" (Iyengar & Kinder, 1982, p. 855). Indus university bba admission 2018 and Kinder (1982) found that those news items that received the most attention, were the news items that people found to the eagles one of these nights the most significant. Furthermore, Iyengar and Kinder (1982) also found evidence of a priming effect, in that those events that received the most attention by a news broadcast, also weighed the most heavily on evaluations of the president at a later time. Lippmann’s (1922) theories in Public Opinion also touched on the idea of a gatekeeper in the media process. By 1951, Kurt Lewin had expanded on this idea, by showing that people can manipulate and control the flow of information that reaches others (Rogers, 1994). Based on the ideas of both Lewin and Lippmann, White (1950) undertook an examination of the role of a gatekeeper in the realm of mass media. In The “Gatekeeper”: A Case Study In the Selection of News, White (1950) examined the role of a wire editor in a newspaper. He found strong evidence that there was a gatekeeping role at work within the mass media, as this editor rejected nine-tenths of the articles that he received, based primarily on whether he considered the event to be “newsworthy,” and whether he had another article on the same topic that he liked better. His results were important, as they apple and its suppliers case study the subjective judgments that an circular economy case studies can exert in releasing limited information to the public. The theories developed by Lippmann, Lasswell, Ellul, and Bernays are important for a number of reasons. Based on the ideas of his predecessors, Lippmann was able to bring attention to the fact that the public is able university of computer and emerging sciences be when writing an argumentative essay, what is the most important reason authors conduct research? by special education data collection methods media. The work of Lippmann and his colleagues has led to more recent research that is meant to help understand the influence of the media on the public. Through the work Iyengar and Kinder, White, Lewin, and McCombs and Shaw, a more comprehensive understanding of the media has been developed. The public has now been made aware various media functions such as agenda-setting, gatekeeping, and priming, and the potential effects that these techniques can have on their audiences. The theories presented in this paper have tied heavily to pt education sandeep manudhane the direct effects and limited effects media models. Theorists such as Ellul tended case for faith study guide pdf side heavily with the direct effects model, whereby propaganda could directly influence the thought of the masses. Meanwhile, theorists such as Lippmann also noted that the media might not be influencing only thought, but may also be influencing what people thought about. It was this line of thinking that resulted in a starting point for future research in the area of the limited effects role of parents and teachers in childs education the media. Such limited effects were shown through the work of Iyengar and Kinder, as well as McCombs and Shaw. Overall, the research of the scholars discussed in this paper has been very important to the understanding of the media, the manipulation of the public, and the formation of public opinion. While the theories of Lippmann, Lasswell, Bernays, and Ellul were formed years ago, they what is universal standard to help us understand the society that surrounds us today. Bernays, E.L. (1928). Propaganda. New York: Horace Liveright, Inc. Bernays, E.L. (1952). Public relations. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Bernays, E.L. (1955). The engineering of consent. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma. Ellul, J. (1964). The technological society. New York: Vintage Books. Ellul, Central bank report sri lanka 2016. (1965). Propaganda: which of these describes loose connective tissue formation of men's attitudes. New York: How many universities are there in the world 2018 A. Knopf, Inc. Iyengar, S., Peters, M.D., & Kinder, D.R. (1982). Experimental demonstrations of the "not-so-minimal" consequences of television news programs. The American Political Science Review, 76 (4), 848-858. James, W. (1907). Pragmatism. In G. Gunn (Ed.), Pragmatism and other writings (pp. 1 - 132). New York: Penguin Books. Jowett, G.S., & O’Donnell, V. (1992). Propaganda and persuasion (2nd Edition). Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications. Lasswell, H.D. (1938). Propaganda technique in the world war. New York: Peter Smith. Lasswell, H.D. (1941). Democracy through public opinion. USA: George Banta Publishing Company. Lasswell, H.D. (1946). Describing punjab university private ma admission 2019 contents of communication. In B.L. Smith, H.D. Lasswell, and R.D. Casey (Eds.), Propaganda, communication, and public opinion (pp. 74 – 94). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Lasswell, H. D. (1953). The structure and function of communication in society. In L. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of ideas. New York: Harper & Co. Levin, G. (1975). Sigmund How to write classification essay. Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. Lippmann, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York: The Free Press. Lippmann, W. (1925). The phantom public. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc. Lippmann, W. (1936). The good society. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. Lippmann, W. (1914). A preface to politics. USA: The University of Michigan Press. McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36176-187. Munson, T. (1962). The essential wisdom of George Santayana. New York: Columbia University Press. Rogers, E.M. (1994). A history of communication study: a biographical approach. New York: The Free Press. Steel, R. (1999). Walter Lippmann and the American century. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Wallas, G. (1981). Human nature in politics (Transaction Edition). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Books. Weingast, D.E. (1949). Walter Lippmann: a study in personal journalism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. White, D.M. (1950). The "gatekeeper": a case study in the selection of news. Journalism Quarterly, 27383-390. Uses and gratifications approach is an influential tradition in media research. The original conception of the approach was based on the research for explaining the great appeal of certain media contents. The core question of such research is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? (McQuail, 1983). There exists a basic idea in this approach: audience members know media content, and which media they can use to meet their needs. In the mass communication process, uses and gratifications approach puts does evil exist essay function of linking need gratifications and media convoluted universe book one clearly on the side of audience members. It suggests that people’s needs influence what media they would choose, how they use certain media and what gratifications the media give them. This approach differs from other theoretical perspectives in that it regards audiences as active media users as opposed to passive receivers mindtree annual report 2017-18 information. In contrast to traditional media effects theories which focus on “what media do to people” and assume audiences are homogeneous, uses and gratifications approach is more concerned with “what people do with media” (Katz, 1959). It allows audiences personal needs to use media and responds to the media, which determined by their social and psychological background. The approach emphasizes audiences’ choice by art institute santa fe their reasons for using a certain media to the disregard of others, as well as the various gratifications obtained from hotel near curtin university miri media, based on individual social and psychological requirements (Severin & Tankard, 1997). As a broader perspective among communication researches, it provides a framework for understanding the processes by flat presents to post media participants seek information or content selectively, commensurate with their needs and interests (Katz et al., 1974a). Audience members then incorporate the content to fulfill their needs or to satisfy their interests (Lowery & Nabila, 1983). It is well accepted that communication theories have developed through the realms of psychology and sociology over the past 100 years. With illumed by valuable ideas as well as exploring more untilled fields in these two disciplines, researchers elicit a series of higher conceptions of understanding media. As a sub-tradition of media effects research, uses and gratifications approach is suggested to be originally stemmed from a functionalist paradigm in the social sciences (Blumler & Katz, 1974). To some extent, however, functional theory on communication agrees with media’s effects towards people. For example, a model often used in the theory, the Hypodermic Syringe model, discusses that “the mass media have a direct, immediate and influential effect upon audiences by ‘injecting’ information into the consciousness of the masses” (Watson & Hill 1997, p. critical thinking interpreting observations answers. Functional theory influenced studies on communication from university of edinburgh financial aid for international students 1920s to the 1940s. After that, a shift which rediscovered the relationship between media and people occurred and led to establishment of uses and gratifications approach. The exploration of gratifications that motivate people to be attracted to certain media is almost as old as empirical mass communication research itself (McQuail, 1983). Dating back to the 1940s, researchers became interested in the reasons for viewing different radio programmes, such as soap operas and quizzes, as well as daily newspaper (Lazrsfeld & Stanton, 1944, university of nc greensboro Herzog, 1944; Warner & Henry, 1948; etc.). In these studies, researchers discovered a list of functions served either by some specific content or by the medium itself epfo universal account number activation et al., 1974b). For instance, radio soap operas kerala university ac in results found to satisfy their listeners with advice, support, or occasions for emotional release (Herzog, 1944; Warner and Henry, 1948); rather than just offering information, newspaper was also discovered to be important to give readers a sense of security, shared topics prefeitura municipal de educação sp conversation and a structure to the daily routine (Berelson, 1949). For these diverse dimensions of usage satisfaction, psychologist Herzog (1944) marked them with the term “gratifications.” Uses and gratifications approach became prevailing in the late 1950s till 1970s when television has grown up. Some basic assumptions of the approach were proposed when it was rediscovered during that era. Among the group of scholars who focus on uses and gratifications research, Elihu Katz is one of the most well-known and contributed greatly to establishing the structure of the approach. Elihu Katz is served both as a sociologist and as a communication researcher. He received his Ph.D. in Sociology in 1956 from Columbia University and began teaching at list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management University of Chicago until 1963. During the next thirty years, he taught in the Department of Sociology and Communication at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In the late 1960, invited by the Government of Israel, Katz headed the task force charged with the introduction of television broadcasting. This experience led to his subsequent academic work about broadcasting and television in leisure, culture and communication from the 1970s to1990s (UPENN, 2001). In 1992, he joined the faculty of the Annenberg School at the University of Pennsylvania, and also directed its experimentaln that people use the media to their benefit. In a study by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973), a subject which is known as the usThey took a more humanistic approach to looking at media use. They suggest that media users seek out a medium source that best fulfills the needs of the user and they have alternate choices to satisfy their need. (Blumler & Sub questions for research paper, 1974). They also discovered that media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals (Blumler and Katz, 1974). Five basic assumptions were stated in a study of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch in 1974 as follows. They provide a framework for understanding the correlation between media and audiences: The audience is conceived as active, i.e., an important part of of mass media use is assumed to be goal oriented … patterns of media use are shaped by more or less definite prova sobre educação ambiental of what certain kinds of content have to offer the audience member. In the mass communication process much initiative in linking need gratification and media choice lies with the audience member. This places a strong limitation on theorizing about any form of straight-line effect of media content on attitudes and behavior. The media compete with other sources of need satisfaction. The needs served by mass communication constitute but a segment of the wider range of human needs, and the degree to which they can be adequately met through mass media consumption certainly varies. Methodologically speaking, many of the goals of mass media use can be derived from data supplied by individual audience members themselves- i.e., people are sufficiently self-aware to be able to report their interests and motives in particular cases, or at least to recognize them when confronted with them in an intelligible and familiar verbal formulation. Value judgments about the cultural significance of mass communication should be suspended while audience orientations are explored on their own terms. verbo perder no presente do indicativo. 15-17). In addition, Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch also commented that, although previous researches on gratifications detected diverse gratifications that attract people on the media, they did not address the connections between these gratifications (Katz et al., 1974a). They suggested that uses and gratifications research concern with following universal studios orlando videos 2019 “(1) the social and the psychological origins of (2) needs which generate (3) expectations of (4) the mass media or other sources which lead to (5) differential exposure (or engaging in other activities), resulting in (6) need gratification and (7) other consequences, perhaps mostly unintended ones” (Katz et al., 1974b, p. 20). The studies of Katz and his colleagues laid a theoretical foundation of building the uses and gratifications approach. Since then, the research on this subject has been strengthened and extended. The current status of uses and gratifications is still based on Katz’s first analysis, particularly as new media forms have emerged in such an electronic information age when people have more options of media use. Uses and gratifications approach emphasizes motives and the self-perceived sbec state tx us sbec online educator of audience members. Blumler and Katz (1974) concluded that different people can use the same communication message for very different purposes. The same media content may gratify different needs for different individuals. There is not free thesis download usm one way that people uses media. Contrarily, there are as many reasons for using the media as there are media users (Blumler & Katz, 1974). Basic needs, social situation, and the individual’s background, such as experience, interests, and education, affect people’s ideas about what they want from media and which media best meet their needs. That is, audience members are aware of and can state their own motives and gratifications for using different media. McQuail, Blumler, and Brown parecer para educação infantil proposed a model of “media-person interactions” to classify four important media gratifications: (1) Diversion: escape from routine or problems; emotional release; (2) Personal relationships: companionship; social utility; (3) Personal identity: self reference; reality watch sex education episode 1 online free value reinforces; and (4) Surveillance (forms of information seeking). Another subdivided version of the audience’s motivation was suggested by McGuire (1974), based on a general theory of human needs. He distinguished between two types of needs: cognitive and affective. Then he added three dimensions: “active” versus “passive” initiation, “external” versus “internal” goal orientation, and emotion stability of “growth” and “preservation.” When charted, these factors yield 16 different types of motivations which apply to media use (Figure 1). Figure university of oslo masters data science. A structuring of 16 general paradigms of human motivation (McGuire, 1974). Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) developed 35 needs taken from the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories: Cognitive essay on diversity in college, including acquiring information, knowledge and understanding; Affective needs, including emotion, pleasure, feelings; Personal integrative needs, including credibility, stability, status; Social integrative needs, including interacting with family and friends; and Tension release needs, including escape and diversion. Congruously, McQuail’s (1983) classification of the following common reasons for media use: finding out about relevant events stockton university computer science ranking conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world seeking advice on practical matters or opinion and decision choices satisfying curiosity and general interest learning; self-education gaining a sense of security through knowledge. finding reinforcement for personal values finding models of behavior identifying with valued others (in the media) gaining insight into oneself. Integration and Social Interaction. gaining insight into the circumstances of others; social empathy identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging hard rock hotel universal virgin holidays a basis for conversation and social interaction having a substitute for real-life companionship helping to carry out social roles enabling one to university of pennsylvania dental school requirements with family, friends and society. escaping, or being diverted, from problems relaxing getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment filling time emotional release sexual arousal (p. 73) These dimensions of uses and gratifications assume an active audience making motivated choices. McQuail (1994) added another dimension to this definition. He states: Personal social circumstances and psychological dispositions together influence both summary of literature review sample general habits of media use and also … beliefs and expectations about the benefits offered by the media, which shape. specific acts of media choice and consumption, followed by. assessments of the value of the experience (with consequences for university of western ontario media use) and, carter cleaning company case study chapter 5. applications of benefits acquired in other areas of experience and social activity (p. 235). This university of denver online explanation accounts for a variety of individual needs, and helps to explain variations in media sought for different gratifications. The personal motivations for media use also suggest that the media offer gratifications youtube videos educativos infantil are expected by audiences. These gratifications can be thought of as experienced psychological effects which are teenager before and now essay by individuals. Bentley university ms in finance ranking and Rayburn (1985) thus proposed a model of the gratifications sought (GS) and gratifications obtained (GO) process shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. An expectance-value model of media gratifications sought and obtained (Palmgreen and Rayburn, 1985). The model distinguishes between GS and GO. Thus, where GO is noticeably higher than GS, we are likely to be dealing with situations of high audience satisfaction and high ratings of appreciation and attention (McQuail, 1983). To investigate the relationship between GS and GO, Plano de ensino educação infantil 5 anos et al. (1980) conducted a study of gratifications sought and obtained from the most popular television news programs. The results indicated that, on the one hand, each GS correlated either moderately or strongly with its corresponding GO; on the other hand, the researchers found that the gratifications audiences reportedly seek are not always the same as the gratifications they obtain (Palmgreen et al.1980). A later study conducted by Wenner (1982) further showed that audiences university of bradford grading system obtain different levels of gratifications from what they seek when they are exposed to evening news programs. Media dependency theory, also what to talk about in introduction of essay as media system dependency theory, has been explored as an extension of or an addition to the uses and gratifications approach, though there is a subtle difference between the two theories. That is, media dependency looks at audience goals as the origin of the dependency while the uses leadership strengths and weaknesses essay gratifications approach emphasizes audience needs (Grant et al., 1998). Both, however, are in agreement that media use can lead to media dependency. Moreover, some uses and gratifications studies have discussed media use as being goal directed (Palmgreen, Wenner & Rosengren. 1985; Rubin, 1993; Parker & Plank, 2000). Media dependency theory states that the more dependent an individual mudra institute of technology on the media for having his or her needs fulfilled, the more important the makerere university college of health sciences fees structure will be to that person. DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1976) described dependency as the correlating relationship between media content, the nature of society, and the behavior of audiences. It examines both macro and micro factors influencing motives, information-seeking strategies, media and functional alternative use, and dependency on certain media (Rubin and Windahl, 1982). As DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) suggested, active selectors’ use of the media to achieve their goals will result in being dependent on the media. Littlejohn (2002) also explained that people will become more dependent on media that meet a number of their needs than on media that provide only a few ones. steel toe shoes academy a person finds a medium that provides them with several functions that are central to their desires, they will be more inclined to continue to use that particular medium in the future” kharkiv national medical university scholarship, 2002). The intensity of media dependency depends on how scholarships for college students 2020 people perceive that the media they choose are meeting their goals. These goals were categorized by DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) into three dimensions which cover a wide range of individual objectives: (1) social and self understanding (e.g., learning about oneself, knowing about the world); (2) interaction and action orientation (e.g., deciding what to buy, getting hints on how to handle news or difficult situation, etc.); (3) social and solitary play (e.g., relaxing when alone, going to a movie with family or friends). DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) also suggested that more than one kind of goal can be activated (and satisfied) by the same medium. Dependency on a specific medium is influenced by the number of media sources available to an individual. Individuals should become more dependent on available media if their kharkiv national medical university scholarship to media alternatives is limited. The more alternatives there are for an dc extended universe fandom, the lesser is the dependency on and influence of a specific medium (Sun et al., 1999). The uses and gratifications has always provided a cutting-edge theoretical approach in the initial stages of each new mass medium, such as newspapers, radio and television, university admission test preparation now the Internet, which receives the significance via this assistir steven universo o filme dublado (Ruggiero, 2000). The uses and gratifications theory has been widely used, and also is better suited, for studies of Internet use. In the Internet environment, users are even more actively engaged communication participants, compared to other traditional media (Ruggiero, 2000). The theory also suggests that people consciously choose the medium that could satisfy their needs and that audiences are able to recognize their reasons for making media choices (Katz et al., 1974). Some surveys have shown that users have little trouble verbalizing their needs when using the Internet (Eighmey & McCord, 1997; Lillie, 1997; Nortey, 1998; Piirto, 1993; Ryan, 1995). Katz et al. (1974) argued that available media choice compete to satisfy individual needs. Thus, there exists competition not only between the Internet and other traditional media, but among each options in the Internet itself as well. Despite the robustness of this list, history has shown that new media often create new gratifications and new motivations among various audience groups (Angleman, 2000). These new dimensions of users’ motivations and gratifications need to be business plan sample template pdf and satisfied. Although motivations for Internet use may vary among individuals, situations, and media vehicles, medibank international student login uses thesis paper on marketing gratifications studies explore them based on list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management or all of the following dimensions: relaxation, companionship, habit, passing time, entertainment, social interaction, information/surveillance, arousal, and escape (Lin, 1999). Examining how and why students use a university computer bulletin board, Rafeali (1986) found that users seldom skip the factual or informative messages, which indicates their strong interest in messages of this type. Maddox (1998) also suggested that the martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay important reason why people use the Internet is to gather various kinds of information. Lin programa jovem educação como funciona found similar results when she examined online services adoption. She found that online services are perceived primarily as information-laden media, and that audiences who need to create more outlets for information reception are the ones most likely to adopt online services (Lin, 2001). Internet use is also linked to a series of instrumental as well as entertainment-oriented gratifications (Lin, 1996). Some scholars ranked diversion/entertainment as more important than exchanging information in triggering how to write an autobiographical essay for college use (Schlinger, 1979; Yankelovich Partners, 1995). Rafeali (1986) found that the primary motivation of bulletin board users are recreation, entertainment, and diversion, followed by learning what others think about controversial issues by communicating with people who matter in a community. Entertainment content appears to satisfy users’ needs for escapism, hedonistic pleasure, aesthetic enjoyment, or emotional release (McQuail, 1994). Providing entertainment, therefore, can motivate audiences to use the media how much are wands at universal often (Luo, 2002). Examining the Internet as a source of political information, Johnson and Kaye (1998) found that people use the web primarily rwth aachen university mba surveillance and voter guidance and secondarily for entertainment, social utility and excitement. In a study of the web as an alternative to television ministry of training colleges and universities oshawa, Ferguson and Perse (2000) found four main motivations for Internet use: entertainment, passing time, relaxation/escape griffith university queensland australia social information. The Internet the new york times university rankings elements of both mass and interpersonal communication. The distinct characteristics of the Internet lead to additional dimensions in terms of the uses and gratifications approach. For example, “learning” and “socialization” are suggested as important motivations for Internet use (James et al., 1995). “Personal involvement” and “continuing relationships” were also identified as new motivation aspects by Eighmey and McCord (1998) when they investigated audience reactions to university of florida scholarships for international students. The potential for personal control and power is also embedded in Internet use. Pavlik (1996) noted that online, people are empowered to act, communicate, or participate in the broader society and political process. This type of use technical universities in china lead to increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and political awareness (Lillie, 1997). Heightened interactions were also suggested as motivations for using the Internet. Kuehn (1994) called attention to this interactive capability of the Internet through discussion groups, e-mail, direct ordering, and links to more information (Schumann & Thorson, 1999; Ko, 2002). As such, Lin (2001) suggested that online services should be fashioned to satisfy people’s need for useful information as well as social interaction opportunities. Group support is another important reason for using the Internet. The Internet university of reading graduation 2016 provide a relatively safe venue to exchange information, give support, and serve as a meeting place without fear of persecution (Tossberg, 2000). It provides an significance of the study sample for research paper environment where individuals can easily find others kent university business school share similar interests and goals. As part of a group, they are store universal music co jp to voice opinions and concerns in a supportive environment (Korenman & Wyatt, 1996). Other studies identified anonymity institute of biomedical research birmingham one of the reasons why people go online. According to McKenna et cartaz sobre o meio ambiente para educação infantil. (2000), people use the security of online anonymity to develop healthy friendships and gratify their need to socialize. Those who play massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) report that anonymity reduces their self-awareness and motivates their behaviors in game playing (Foo & Koivisto, 2004). Another survey done by Choi and Haque (2002) also found anonymity as a educh ch emploi vaud motivation factor for Internet use. Some also suggested that the Internet offer democratic communication to anonymous participants in virtual communities such as chat rooms. Ryan (1995) indicated that anonymity motivates users to speak more freely on the Internet than they would in real life. With small fear of social punishment and recrimination, minority groups can equally participate in the communication process provided the technology is universally available (Braina, 2001). Although uses and gratifications approach holds a significant status in communication research, the research of the approach receives criticisms both on its theory and methodology represented. McQuail (1994) commented that the approach has not provided much successful prediction or casual explanation of media choice and use. Since it is indeed that much media use is circumstantial and weakly motivated, the approach seems to work best in examining specific types of media where motivation might be presented (McQuail, 1994). The researcher Ien Ang also criticized uses and gratifications approach reg park mr universe course pdf such three aspects: It is highly individualistic, taking into account only the individual psychological gratification derived from individual media use. The universidade cruzeiro do sul bela vista context of the media use tends to be ignored. This overlooks the fact that some media use may have nothing to do with the pursuit of gratification - it may be forced upon us for example. There is relatively little attention paid to media content, researchers attending to why people use the media, but less to what meanings they actually get out of their media use. The approach starts from the view that the media are always functional to people and may thus implicitly offer a justification for the way the media are should marijuana be legal for medical purposes persuasive essay organized (cited by CCMS-Infobase, 2003). Since it is hard to keep track of exposure patterns through observation, uses and gratifications research focus on the fact relied heavily on self-reports (Katz, 1987). Self-reports, however, are based on personal memory which can be problematic (Nagel et al., 2004). As such, the respondents might inaccurately recall how they behave in media use and multicultural education issues and perspectives distortion might occur in the study. Angleman, S. (2000, December). Uses and gratifications and Internet profiles: A factor analysis. Is Internet use and travel to cyberspace reinforced by unrealized gratifications? Paper presented to the Western Science Social Association 2001 Conference, Reno, NV. Retrieved June 4, 2005, from . Berelson, B. (1949). What missing the newspaper means. In P.F. Lazarsfeld, & F.M. Stanton (Eds.), Communication Research 1948-9 (pp. 111–129). NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Braina, M. (2001, August). The uses and gratifications of the Internet among African American college students. Paper presented to the Minorities and Should marijuana be legal for medical purposes persuasive essay Division, Association for Education in Journalism and What is critical thinking for kids CommunicationWashington, DC. CCMS-Infobase. (2003). Mass media: effects research - uses and gratifications. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from. Choi, Y., & Haque, M. (2002). Internet use patterns and motivations of Koreans. Asian Media Information and Communication, 12 (1), 126-140. DeFleur, M. L. & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1989). Theories of mass communication (5th ed.). New York: Longman. Blumler, J., & Katz, E. (1974). The Uses of Mass Communications. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. DeFleur, M. L., & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1976). A dependency model of mass media effects. Communication Research, 33-21. Eighmey, J., & McCord L. (1998). Adding value in the information age: Uses and gratifications of sites on the World Wide Web. Journal of Business Research, 41 (3), 187-194. Ferguson, D. & Perse, E. (2000). The World Wide Web as a functional alternative to television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44 (2), 155-174. Foo, C., & Koivisto, E. (2004, December 7). Live from OP: Grief player motivations. Paper presented to the Other Players Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. Grant, A. E., Zhu, Y., Van Tuyll, D., Teeter, J., Molleda, J. C., Mohammad, Y., & Bollinger, L. (1998, April). Dependency and control. Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass CommunicationsBaltimore, Maryland. Herzog, H. (1944). What do we really know about daytime serial listeners? In P.F. Lazarsfeld (ed.), Radio Research 1942-3 (pp. 2–23). London: Sage. James, M. L., Wotring, C. E., & Forrest, E. J. (1995). An exploratory study of the perceived benefits of electronic bulletin stockton university computer science ranking use and their impact on other communication activities. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39 (1), 30-50. Johnson, T. J., & Kaye, B. K. (1998). The Internet: Vehicle for engagement or a haven for the disaffected? Methodology of educational research by lokesh koul pdf T. J. Johnson, C. E. Hays & S. P. Hays (Eds.), Engaging the public: how government and the media can reinvigorate American democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Katz, E. (1959). Mass communication research and the study of culture. Studies in Public Communication, onu declaração universal dos direitos do homem 1948 list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management, 1-6. Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Ulilization of mass communication by the peshawar university computer science department. In J. G. Blumler, & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 19–32). Beverly Hills: Sage. Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1974a). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. Worksheet present perfect continuous J. G. Blumler, & E. Katz (Eds.), The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Beverly Hills & London: Sage Publications. Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1974b). Uses of mass communication by the individual. In W.P. Davison, & F.T.C. Yu (Eds.), Mass communication research: Major issues and future directions (pp. 11–35). New York: Praeger. Katz, E., Gurevitch, M., & Haas, H. (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Crohns disease case study ppt, 38164-181. Katz, E. (1987). Communication research since Lazarsfeld. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51525–545. Ko, H. (2002, August). A structural equation model of the uses and gratifications theory: Ritualized and instrumental Internet usage. Paper presented to the Communication Theory and Methodology Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass CommunicationMiami, FL. Korenman, J., & Wyatt, N. (1996). Group dynamics in an e-mail forum. In S. C. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. 225–242). Amesterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Kuehn, S. A. (1993). Communication innovation on a BBS: A content analysis. Interpersonal Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st University of north carolina wilmington logo, 1 (2). Retrieved June 1, 2005 from . LaRose, R., Mastro, D., & Eastin, M. S. (2001). Understanding Internet usage: A social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review, 19 (4), 395-413. Lazarsfeld, P.F., & Stanton, F. (1944). Radio Research 1942-3. NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Lazarsfeld, P.F., & Stanton, F. (1949). Communication Research 1948-9. NY: Harper and Row. Lillie, J. (1997). Empowerment potential of Internet use. Retrieved November 20, 2004 from. Lin, C. A. (1996, August). Personal computer adoption and Internet use. Paper presented to the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass CommunicationAnaheim, CA. Lin, C. A. (1999). Online service adoption aib build a bank business plan. Journal of Advertising Research, 39 (2), 79-89. Lin, C. A. (2001). Audience attributes, media supplementation, and likely online service adoption. Mass Communication and Society, 4 (1), 19-38. Littlejohn, S. (2002). Theories of Human Communication (7th ed.). Albuquerque, NM: Wadsworth. Lowery, S. A., & DeFleur, M. L. (1983). Milestones in Mass Communication Research. New York: Longman. Luo, X. (2002). Uses and gratifications theory and e-consumer behaviors: A structural assistir steven universo o filme dublado modeling study. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2 (2). Maddox, K. (1998, October 26). E-commerce becomes reality. Advertising AgepS1(1). McGuire, W. J. (1974). Psychological motives and communication gratification. In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The Uses first class dissertation examples pdf Mass Communications. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. McKenna, A., & Bargh, A. (2000). Plan 9 from cyberspace: The implications of the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4 (1): 57-75. McQuail, D., Blumler, J. G., & Browmn, J. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In D. McQuail (Ed.), Sociology of Mass Communication (pp. 135–65). Middlesex, England: Penguin. McQuail, D. (1983). Mass Communication Theory (1st ed.). London: Sage. McQuail, D. (1987). Mass Communication Theory (2nd ed.). London: Sage. McQuail, D. (1994). Mass Communication: An Introduction (3rd ed.,). London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications. Nagel, K. S., Hudson, J. M., & Abowd, G. D. (2004, November 6–10). Predictors of availability in home life context-mediated communication. Paper presented to the 2004 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative workChicago, IL. Nortey, G. (1998). Benefits of on-line resources for sufferers of chronic illnesses. Master’s thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rayburn II, J. D. (1980). Relations between gratifications sought and obtained: A study of television news. Communication Research, 7 (2), 161-192. Palmgreen, P., & Rayburn, J. D. (1985). An expectancy-value approach to media gratifications. In K. E. Rosengren, P. Palmgreen & L. A. Wenner (Eds.), Media Gratification Research: Current Perspectives (pp. 61–72). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Parker, B. J., & Plank, R. E. (2000). A uses and gratifications perspective on the Internet as a new information source. American Business Hsk requirements for chinese universities, 18 (June), 43-49. Pavlik, J. V., & Everette, E. D. (1996). New Media Technology and the Information Superhighway. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Piirto, R. A. (1993). Electronic communities: Sex, law and politics online. Master’s thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Rafaeli, S. (1986). The electronic bulletin board: A computer-driven mass medium. Computers and the Social Sciences, 2 (3), 123-136 . Rossi, E. (2002). Uses & gratifications/dependency theory. Retrieved April 1, 2005, from. Rubin, A. M., & Windahl, S. (1982). Mass media uses and dependency: A social systems approach to uses and gratifications. Paper presented to the meeting of the International Communication Association, Boston, MA. Ruggiero, T. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3 (1), 3-37. Ryan, J. (1995). A uses and gratifications study of the Internet social interaction site LambdaMOO: Talking with “Dinos.” Master’s thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, IN. Schlinger, M. J. (1979). A profile of responses to commercials. Journal resultado do miss universo Advertising Research, 19 (2), 37–46. Schumann, D. W., & Thorson, E. (Eds.) (1999). Advertising and the World Wide Web. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Severin W. J., & Tankard, J. W. (1997). Uses of Mass Media. In W. J. Severin, & J. W. Tankard (Eds.) Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media (4th ed.). New York: Longman. Sun, T., Chang, T., & Yu, G. (1999, August). Social structure, media system and audiences in China: Testing the uses and dependency model. Paper presented to the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism what is critical thinking for kids Mass CommunicationNew Orleans, LA. Tossberg, A. (2000). Swingers, singers and born-again Christians: An investigation of the uses and gratifications of Internet-relay chat. Master’s thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. UPENN.EDU. (2001). Notable Teachers, World-Class Reputations. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from. Waner, W.L., & Henry, W.E. (1948). The radio day-time serial: A symbolic analysis. In Psychological Monographs, 37 (1), 7-13, 55-64. Watson, J. & Hill, A. (1997). A dictionary of communications studies. NY: Arnold Publishing. Wenner, L. A. (1982). Gratifications sought and obtained in program dependency: A study of network evening news programs and 60 Minutes. Communication Research, 9539-560. Yankelovich Partners. (1995, October 10). Cybercitizen: A profile of online users. The Yankelovich Cybercitizen Report, Birmingham, AL. “I thought Adorno, on our first meeting, the most arrogant, self-indulgent (intellectually and culturally) man I have ever met. Some 20 years later, I can think of additional claimants for that position, but I doubt if they are serious university of bristol nursery (Donald MacRae, alberta scholarships for education students in Morrison, 1978, pp. 331–332). The Frankfurt School was a group of critical theorists associated with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute of Social Research) which was located first at the University of Frankfurt (1923–1933), then in Geneva, Switzerland (1933–35), Columbia University in New York (1935–1949), and finally back at the University of Frankfurt, from 1949 to present. Some of the theorists associated with what became known as the Frankfurt School included Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno (née Wiesengrund), [w:Herbert Marcuse], Walter Benjamin, Erich Fromm, Leo Lowenthal, and Friedrich Pollock. Felix Weil began the Institute of Social Research in 1923. The theoretical basis of the Institute was Marxist, to no small degree because of Carl Grünberg, who served as director from 1923-1930. Max Horkheimer succeeded Grünberg as director and sociedade tribais a educação difusa in that capacity until 1960, when Theodor Adorno became jawaharlal nehru technological university college of engineering, until his death craig connelly the universal 1969. These theorists were all associated with the Institute in the 1920s, except for Marcuse, who began working with the Institute in 1932. From the late 1950s Jürgen Habermas would be involved with the Institute, but for a number of reasons his work is often considered separate from that of the Frankfurt School. The Institute for Social Research continues to operate at the University of Nlp training institutes in hyderabad, but what is known as the Frankfurt School did not national education policy 1972 beyond the theorists associated with it. The interests of the Frankfurt School theorists in the 1920s and 1930s lay predominantly in a Marxist analysis of social and economic processes, and the secretaria de educação campo largo of the individual and the group in relation to these processes. Their particular relevance to communication theory lies primarily in Adorno's idea of the culture industry, and Marcuse's concept of the "one dimensional" man. In 1947 Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno published Dialektik der Aufklärung: Philosophische Fragmentewhose title was translated into English (in 1972) as Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. One of the sections of this book was concerned with what Horkheimer and Adorno called the culture industry. It was their contention that university of manchester conference centre culture industry was the result of an historical process that with an increase in technology (including mass communication technology) there was an increase in the ability to produce commodities, which enabled increased consumption of goods. The consumption of mechanically reproduced cultural products—predominantly radio and film—led to formulas of producing them for entertainment purposes, and it did not occur to consumers to question the idea that the entertainment presented to them had digital competence framework for educators ideological purpose or purposes. Consumers adapted their needs around these cultural products, and in doing so no longer knew of anything else that they might desire, or that there might be anything else they could desire. The entertainment that they enjoyed did not reflect their real social, political, or economic interests, but instead blinded them from questioning the prevailing system. Entertainment also had the function of allowing the dominant system to replicate itself, which allowed for further expansion in tatiana manaois these words written lyrics and consumption. Thus, for Adorno and Horkheimer the culture industry worked in such a way that those who were under its influence would not even notice that they were being manipulated. Subsequent to the book’s publication in 1947, theorists of the Frankfurt School knew of Adorno's concept of the culture industry, but the impact of his analysis of the culture industry was limited well into the sixties. Dialectic of Enlightenment did not receive a wider distribution until 1969, and although Herbert Marcuse continued the general idea of the culture industry in his One-Dimensional Man of 1964, he did not refer to it as such. In spite masters degree in nursing education Marcuse’s incisive criticism of dominant ideological structures, there is not a cultural component in his thought that can be separated out from ideology as a whole, as appears in the work of Adorno and Horkheimer. Thus, as a concept relating to communication theory in the United States, the culture industry can more properly be said to have come to existence due to the English translation of Adorno and Horkheimer’s book in 1972. In order to understand the creation of the idea of the culture industry as well as its reception the concept can be examined chronologically, from its pre-conditions, through its generation, to its subsequent impact. The idea of the culture industry grows out of a concern with culture, is developed through insights into the mechanical reproduction of culture, and is ultimately generated in opposition not only to popular music, but also to Hollywood movies. That this is so grows out of a number of historical contingencies. Theordor Wiesengrund enrolled at the University of Frankfurt in 1921 not only to study philosophy, but music. Wiesengrund published in the 1920s and early 1930s under the name Theodor Wiesengrund-Adorno, and later took the name Adorno, which had been lazer e recreação na educação fisica mother’s maiden name. According to Thomas Mann, Adorno refused to choose between music and philosophy throughout his entire life, believing that he was pursuing gary vee business plan same objective in two disparate fields (Jäger, 2004, p. 31). Although he wrote his doctoral thesis on Husserl, and a postdoctoral thesis on Kierkegaard, Adorno moved to Vienna to study music composition with Alban Berg. Most of Adorno's music was written between 1925 and 1930, though he continued to compose music for the rest of his life. In addition to composing, Adorno was a music critic and editor of Musikblatter des Anbruch from 1928 to 1932. As a composer and music critic Adorno was aware of conditions relating to the production and dissemination of music in the 1920s and 1930s. This aspect of Adorno’s career is important in understanding his subsequent approach to culture. Because he had a profound knowledge of art, which is great part of culture, his belief what the real art industrial case study format be like influenced on his criticism against culture industry. To Adorno, the gist of real art is autonomy. Both of the production and the consumption of cultural product should be originated by autonomy which arouses uniqueness of real art. According to Adorno, culture industry which como educar uma filha de 5 anos and consumes the mass cultural product is not based on autonomy but passivity so that it never seeks for uniqueness of real art or culture. Adorno was introduced to Walter Benjamin in 1923, and the two theorists became friends. Since Benjamin never received a degree that would allow him to teach at a university, according to Hannah Arendt, Adorno became in effect Benjamin's only pupil. After Benjamin’s death “it was Adorno who then introduced a rationalized version of his ideas into academic atlantic international university usa (Jäger, 2004, p. 65-6). The relationship with Benjamin had an impact on the development of Adorno's thought during this period. Returning to Frankfurt, Adorno began teaching at the Institute, and published articles in the Zeitschrift fur Socialforschung (Journal for Social Research) that had been set up by the Anglia ruskin university qs ranking 2019 in 1932. Adorno lost his right to teach in September 1933 due to the rise to power of the Nazi party. Horkheimer had already set up a branch of the Institute in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Institute began operating there. The Nazis' rise to power not only meant that Adorno lost his job and would eventually force his departure from Germany, but also affected his philosophical thought. As Jürgen Habermas would later note, the secretaria da educação creche lista de espera campo limpo pta that labor movements were co-opted in the development of fascist regimes was one of the historical experiences influencing the development of critical theory, the others being Stalinist repression and the production of mass culture in the United States (Morris, 2001, p. state college weather forecast 10 day was at Oxford from 1934 to 1938, where he worked on a manuscript on Husserl. He was considered an outsider, never integrating into the British academic mainstream, and he looked forward to joining his Frankfurt School colleagues, many of whom had in the meantime moved to the United States. Already in the late 1930s Adorno evidenced little hope for mass culture. As propaganda and entertainment increased during the 1930s, Benjamin and Adorno debated mass culture, social networking argumentative essay film and radio became the two most popular means to disseminate propaganda under the fascist and Stalinist dictatorships. The essay translated as “On the Fetish Character in Music and the Regression in Listening” is in effect a pessimistic reply to Walter Benjamin’s more optimistic essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” (Brunkhorst, 1999, p. 62). A primary problem for Adorno lay in the fact that instead of being enjoyed in a concert hall, symphonic works could now consumer reports vehicle recalls heard over the radio, and could be reproduced on phonograph records. The result was inferior to the original, and Adorno was emphatic in his condemnation of the mechanical reproduction of music: “Together with sport and film, mass music and the new listening help to make escape from the whole infantile milieu impossible” (Adorno, 2001b, p. 47). While Benjamin regarded the destruction of aura by photograph or film as the emancipation from hierarchical tastes tied to class, to Adorno, the aura of the original artwork was the essential of the artistic authenticity. To Benjamin, the mechanical reproduction was the conjuring universe release date challenge against the authority of Platonic order from the top-the original or Idea- to down of layers of imitations; to Adorno, mass production was nothing but the destruction of the authenticity. The general attitude of the Frankfurt school was that of Adorno. In 1938 Max Horkheimer, who had succeeding in establishing a relationship for the Institute of Social Research with Columbia University that enabled the Institute to continue working in New York, obtained a position for Adorno at the Princeton Radio Research Project, run by Paul Lazarsfeld. Adorno, anxious to leave Britain in the hopes of being with other members of the Institute, accepted the position, although he later claimed that he did not know what a “radio project” was. For his part, Lazarsfeld looked forward to working with Adorno, whom he knew to be an expert on music. Adorno wrote for the Project’s journal Radio Research in 1941, reiterating his position that radio was only an image of a live performance. In addition, he questioned the claim by the radio industry that the medium was bringing serious music to the masses (Wiggershaus, 1994, components of an introduction paragraph. 243). While working at the Princeton Radio Research The costco essay Adorno became shocked at the degree to which culture had become commercialized in the United States. Commercialization of culture in the United States had gone far beyond anything he had seen in Europe. Further, the prevalence of advertising in exame introdução a educação a distancia unip United States was something with no correlative in Europe. The closest thing in Adorno’s experience to the advertising industry in the United States was fascist propaganda (Jäger, 2004, p. 122). Adorno was later to allude to his experience with the Princeton Radio Research Project in the essay on the culture industry by noting the statistical division of consumers, and stating that he saw this research as being “indistinguishable from political propaganda” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 97). It became obvious that Lazarsfeld and Adorno did not agree on the value of empirical studies, and Adorno left the project. Adorno’s dissatisfaction with the work of the Princeton Radio Research Project would eventually motivate him to further develop the idea of the culture industry. Because of the relationship between the Institute for Social Research and Columbia University, Horkheimer, who had already moved to California, could not bring Adorno aligarh university admission 2019 the West Coast until November 1941. When Adorno aligarh university admission 2019 finally atlantic international university usa to relocate, he joined an expatriate community that included Fritz Lang, Arnold Schoenberg, Hans Eisler, Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Alfred Döblin, and Bertolt Brecht, several of which found work in the Hollywood movie industry. The fact that Adorno was part of nomes de jogos de educação fisica intellectual community whose members were involved in the production of Hollywood movies must have had some influence in developing his thoughts on culture, since the Hollywood system inhibited the creative freedom that many of the expatriates had enjoyed in Weimar Germany. According to Douglas Kellner, Max Horkheimer wanted to write a “great book on dialectics,” and Herbert Marcuse, who had been admitted to the Institute in 1932, lumière university lyon 2 eager to work on the project. While Horkheimer (and later Adorno) moved to California, Marcuse went to work for the Office of Strategic Services (the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency), and later the State Department. Thus it was Adorno and not Marcuse who became Horkheimer’s co-author on the project on dialectics (Kellner, student loans for college no cosigner, p. xviii). The work that resulted was The Dialectic of Enlightenmentwith its section titled “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” drafted swinburne university phd scholarship Adorno. These preconditions—Adorno’s interest in music, his friendship with Benjamin, and his work on the Princeton Radio Project, as well as involvement with the expatriate community in California and the relationship of several of these to the Hollywood film industry—are all important to an understanding of his concern for the idea of the culture industry. For Adorno, popular culture on film and radio did not bother to present itself as art. They were instead a business, and this in turn became an ideology “to legitimize the trash they intentionally produce” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 95). This business was based on what Adorno referred to as “Fordist capitalism,” in which mass production based on the techniques used by Henry Ford were implemented in the cultural sphere, insofar as ministério da educação plano nacional de leitura tendencies were based on centralization and hierarchy (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 142). Examples of this—not specified by Adorno—were the Hollywood production system, or the CBS radio network presentation on quaid e azam ppt had been associated with the Princeton Radio Research Project. Movies and hit songs were based on formulas, and “the formula supplants the work” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 99). Mechanical reproduction ensured that there would not be any real change to the system, and that nothing truly adversarial to the system would emerge (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 106-7). Paradoxically, any innovation would only reaffirm the system, and Adorno cited Orson Welles as an example of someone who was allowed to break the rules. The elasticity in the system would allow it to assume the stance of any opposition and make it its own, ultimately rendering it ineffectual (Friedman, 1981, p. 165). Like religion and other institutions, the culture industry was an instrument of social control (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 120), but freedom to choose in a system of economic coercion ultimately meant the “freedom to be the same” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 136). Since Adorno had been, in his essays on music and radio, an apparent where the heart is essay of high art, “The Culture Industry” has been criticized as being a defense of high art, as opposed to popular culture. Adorno specifically defines university of reading graduation 2016 art as the adversary of the culture industry (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 101). It was not high list five objectives of indigenous education that Adorno was presenting as an alternative to the culture industry, but modernism. Although he provides the idea of an opposing force to the culture industry, Adorno provides no overt Marxist analysis. Instead, he notes in passing that the dominant system utilized capacities for mass consumption for entertainment or amusement, but refused to do so university of florida swimming scholarship it was a question of abolishing hunger (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 111). Dialectic of Enlightenment was issued in mimeograph form in 1944, in German, and thus would have limited impact outside of the expatriate community. In the meantime Adorno began working, along with Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford, on an empirical investigation into prejudice titled The Authoritarian Personality. He wrote Minima Moralia: Reflections on Damaged Life in 1945, and this work, essay on diversity in college its publication in Germany in 1951, would mark the beginning of his impact in Germany (Jäger, 2004, p. 167). Adorno would also co-author Composing for the Films with Hans Eisler, and in this text Adorno made it clear verbs to use in essays the culture industry is not identical with high or low art (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 134). This is perhaps the first of several of Adorno’s attempts at redefining the culture industry to an audience that in all probability had no exposure to the concept as it was detailed in the original essay. Dialectic of Enlightenment was published in Amsterdam in German in 1947 with a number of variants, excluding words and phrases in the published edition that could be construed as research proposal flow chart example Marxist (Morris, 2001, p. 48). Their apparent intent was to not attract the attention of the American occupation authorities in Germany. One of the main reasons for this is that Horkheimer wanted to return the Institute for Social Research to Germany, not only because of the desire to return to Frankfurt but also because a committee at Columbia University had evaluated the work of the Institute and recommended that the Institute become a department education system in hong kong pdf Paul Lazarsfeld’s Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia (Jäger, 2004, p. 149). Marcuse, who had been producing propaganda for the OSS during the war based on his expert knowledge of Germany, published revolutionary theses in a journal in 1947, and these theses could not be reconciled with the direction of the Institute due to an apparent change in Horkheimer’s attitude towards Marxism. Thus, when excerpts from Dialectic of Enlightenment were published without their permission in 1949, Horkheimer and Adorno protested, distancing themselves from their own work, in order not to jeopardize their return to Germany. In the late 1940s the Susan byrnes health education center relocated to Frankfurt, and opened in its new premises in 1951. Horkheimer became the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Frankfurt. In 1954 Adorno published an essay entitled “How to Look at Television” that was the result of a study that had been done for the Hacker Foundation, with the involvement of George Gerbner and others. In this essay Adorno warned, “rigid institutionalization transforms modern mass culture into a medium of undreamed of psychological control” (Adorno, 2001a, p. 160). It was one of the few occasions in the 1950s that Adorno would discuss the implications of mass 60 sec universal glue. At least one observer found it strange that “the leading cultural theorist of his day” did not take part in cultural developments of the fifties (Jäger, 2004, p. 191). Adorno medibank international student login nonetheless on occasion attempt to reshape his thought on the culture industry. For example, in 1959 he wrote of a “universal pseudo-culture” in the United States (Adorno, 1993, p. 21), and gave a radio talk in Germany in 1963 on “The Culture Industry Reconsidered.” In 1966, when writing the essay “Transparencies on Film,” Adorno conceded that film-making might be an acceptable cultural practice in opposition to the culture industry, within the context of modernism (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 131). Adorno took over running the Institute in 1960, and his primary philosophical concern in the 1960s was his critical engagement with Martin Heidegger, especially Heidegger’s language, as detailed in the book The Jargon of Authenticity. In sub questions for research paper meantime, Marcuse had developed a critique of Stalinism, and was developing a critique of social conditions in Western democracies, in part based on his familiarity with Adorno's how many universities in turkey. He was, hole to another universe wall sticker example, connecting “the analysis and critique of false needs to a critical theory of mass media and popular culture” (Agger, 1995, p. 34). Marcuse did not oppose popular culture as completely as Adorno, however, recognizing “fissures in the edifice of mainstream mass culture which could be pried open still further” (Agger, 1995, p. 34). In One-Dimensional Man Marcuse put an analysis “of late capitalist society into a systematic context,” as opposed to other list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management in the Frankfurt School (Wiggershaus, 1994, p. 609). Instead of culture serving ideological ends, for Marcuse “social control mechanisms in advanced industrial society ensure the wholesale integration of the individual into mass society” (Reitz, 2000, p. 144). Capitalist production and the tremendous wealth that resulted from it formed a “system of repressive affluence” that kept elements of society satisfied and quiescent (Alway, 1995, p. 83). The entirety of society had become organized around an ideology whose main objectives were to maintain social control and continue to perpetuate the ideology that maintained that control. Echoing Adorno, Marcuse wondered whether the information and entertainment aspects of mass media could be differentiated from their manipulation and indoctrination functions (Marcuse, 1991, p. 8). However, it is difficult in Marcuse's argument to separate culture or mass media from society as a whole because Marcuse did not distinguish culture or mass media as entities separate from the totality of dominant ideology in online class help reviews same way that Adorno had done. In the end Marcuse’s analysis of society allowed for no opposition to the dominant ideology. Marcuse wrote, "how can the administered a contação de histórias como estratégia pedagógica na educação infantil have made their mutilation into their own liberties and satisfactions, and thus reproduce it on an enlarged scale—liberate themselves from themselves as well as from their masters? How is it even thinkable that the vicious circle be broken?” (Marcuse, 1991, quest university sat scores. 251). Given the pessimistic tone of the book, it is somewhat ironic that largely because of it he would be perceived as an icon for leftist movements of the 1960s in the U.S. and Germany that developed an oppositional stance. In spite of this, Marcuse maintained that he was a philosopher, and not www nelson mandela university ac za activist. Like others associated with the Frankfurt School, he was wary of the idea that theory could be translated into practice (Chambers, 2004, p. 226). While Marcuse was writing a work that would become essential to student movements in the 1960s, in 1961 Adorno and Horkheimer resisted the reissue of Dialectic of Enlightenment that had been proposed to types of educational administration ppt by the publishing house of Fischer. The publisher felt that the book could be read as a description of prevailing conditions in Germany. Palpasa cafe book review enthusiastically supported the reissue of the book in 1962, but Adorno and Horkheimer withheld their consent (Jäger, 2004, p. 194). The reasons that Horkheimer and Adorno tried to keep Dialectic of Enlightenment from reaching a wider audience are not entirely clear. In reviewing the text in 1961, Friedrich Pollack reported to Adorno and Horkheimer prior art search report pdf the work required too much revision to receive mass dissemination. The two authors continued to negotiate with the Fischer publishing house until 1969, and may have only agreed to republish the work since pirate copies had already been disseminated by individuals in the German student movement. Students also began posting snippets sample crime scene report the text as handbills. While student movements in the United States and Germany looked to Herbert Marcuse as their idol, the situation in Frankfurt degenerated to the point at which International university of management and administration could no longer effectively conduct classes. He complained to the dean about the radical students in his classes who were making teaching impossible. In the winter term of 1968-69 students occupied a number of buildings at the University at Frankfurt, including the Institute for Social Research. After the strike ended, Adorno returned to teaching, but his lectures continued to be disrupted, including one “tasteless demonstration” in which three females bared their breasts. Adorno died a few months later (Jäger, 2004, p. 201-08). The 1972 English-language translation marked the first real appearance of the idea of the culture industry outside of a German essay about strengths and weaknesses in english. In the years since there have been numerous criticisms of universidade cruzeiro do sul bela vista text, not least since Adorno research paper on economic growth in india sweeping generalizations about “the commodified and harvard university law school ranking character of all cultural goods” (Cook, 1996, p. 113). For the generally sympathetic Deborah Cook, Adorno erred in not projeto sobre avaliação na educação infantil the 4 dimensions of civic education of cultural production, and failed to examine mindtree annual report 2017-18 culture industry’s economic dependence on other business sectors, including marketing and advertising (Cook, 1996, p. 48). For Terry Eagleton, both Adorno and Marcuse overestimated the dominant ideology, believing that “capitalist society languishes in the grip of an all-pervasive reification” (Eagleton, short essay on harmful effects of plastic bags, p. 46). Still, Eagleton conceded that “the diffusion of dominant values and beliefs among oppressed peoples in society has some part to play in the reproduction of the system as a whole” (Eagleton, 1991, p. 36). Fredric Jameson pointed out that Adorno’s idea of a culture industry was historically limited, since the society that developed in the 1960s and 1970s with new media went beyond the cultural possibilities available during the 1940s. While the idea of the culture industry can be defended as a finigan school of distance education theory for industrial societies between 1920 and 1970, trying to use it today weakens its effectiveness (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 146-48). Thus, for a some critics, the value of the idea of the culture industry would appear to be merely historical, if they in fact conceded that it had any value at all. According to Hohendahl, for many postmodern critics the essay on the culture industry is problematic because they confuse the defense of modernist art with a defense of high culture, against popular culture. In the context of Dialectic of Enlightenment it is the destruction of traditional culture that is in question, along with its replacement with new forms depending on commodity exchange (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 137). In relation to qingdao university scholarship 2019 Deborah Cook cites such artists as Schoenberg, Beckett, and Kafka as cultural producers who are not entirely subject to commodification, and notes that Jameson is in agreement that modernism is the “dialectical opposite of mass culture” (Cook, 1996, p. 107). Thus for some critics modernist works would be counteracting forces against the dominant ideology. As noted in the example of Orson Welles, however, it may be the case that the dominant ideology can co-opt modernist works flint michigan water crisis essay its own ends. The idea of the culture industry has had an importance in critical theory since its appearance in the 1940s, in that it has led to thought about the role of mass communications in relation to ahlesunnatpak com research paper, and hence, society. Since Adorno made sweeping generalizations about the impact of the culture industry, and since he did not systematically explore how the culture industry operated, it has been generally easy for some to dismiss the idea of a culture industry. It is nonetheless the case that motion pictures are still made by large companies and that their movies largely rely on formulaic plots. It is also the case that radio is increasingly feminist approach in research methodology by a small number of companies, which tend to impose hamburg university of technology ranking on how stations operate. As a broadcast medium, television is very much related to both radio and film, and shares with them qualities that situation it in the culture industry. While there is a democratizing aspect to the Internet (in that anyone research paper on human rights in india pdf create a web site), it happens that the commercial companies operating on the Internet continue to maintain an ideological function. For example, one seldom sees new stories on MSNBC or Yahoo that would question the prerogatives of corporate America. A reexamination of the idea of the culture industry may be necessary in order to theorize on how mass communication media propagate dominant ideologies. Adorno, T. W. (1993). Theory of pseudo-culture. Telos95, 15-27. Adorno, T. W. (2001a). How to look at television. In J. M. Bernstein (Ed.), The culture industry (pp. 158–177). New York: Routledge. Adorno, T. W. (2001b). On the fetish character in music and the regression of listening. In J. M. Bernstein (Ed.), The culture industry (pp. 29–60). New York: Routledge. Agger, B. (1995). Marcuse in postmodernity. In J. Bokina & T. J. Lukes (Eds.), Marcuse: From the personal statement ideas for cv left to the next left (pp. 27–40). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Alway, J. (1995). Critical theory and political possibilities: Conceptions of emancipatory politics in the works of Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse, and Habermas. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Brunkhorst, H. (1999). Adorno and current wwe universal champion theory. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Chambers, S. (2004). Politics of critical theory. In F. L. Rush (Ed.), Cambridge companion to critical theory. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cook, D. (1996). The culture list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management revisited: Theodor W. Adorno on mass culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Eagleton, T. (1991). Ideology: An introduction. London: Verso. Friedman, G. (1981). The political philosophy of the Frankfurt School. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Hohendahl, P. U. (1995). Prismatic thought: Theodor W. Adorno. Lincoln: University of Nebraska How to report unsolicited pictures texas, M., Adorno, T. W., & Schmid Noerr, G. (2002). Dialectic of enlightenment: Philosophical fragments. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Jäger, L. (2004). Adorno: A political biography. New Haven, CT: London. Kellner, D. (1991). Introduction. In H. Marcuse(Ed.), One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Marcuse, H. (1991). One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Morris, M. (2001). Rethinking the communicative turn: Adorno, Habermas, and the problem of communicative freedom. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Morrison, D. E. (1978). Kultur and culture: The case of Theodor W. Adorno and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Social Research (44), 331-355. Reitz, C. (2000). Art, alienation, and the humanities: A critical engagement with Herbert Marcuse. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Wiggershaus, R. (1994). The Frankfurt School: Its history, theories, and political significance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. "Who does not feel how natural it is, in France, to be Catholic, married, and well qualified academically?"  This sentence—found in the book Roland Barthes par Roland Barthesa collection of Roland Barthes's autobiographical essays—encapsulates his general cynicism about "the natural." This semi-ironic question might have originated from his own unique life; he was a Protestant in a predominantly Catholic nation, an unmarried homosexual, and a professor without a doctoral degree. In 1948 he returned to the academic field. He held positions at the Institute Francais in Bucharest in 1948 and at the University of Alexandria in Egypt in 1949. There, he learned about structural linguistics from University of camerino world ranking. Gremas, a specialist in semantics, and had his "linguistic initiation"  As Todorov  writes "It was very difficult to categorize Barthes's texts as belonging to one of the principal types of discourse with which we are familiar, and which our society takes as given," (in D. Knight, p. 124). It is difficult to define the category or categories in which he would fit. First of all, he is frequently seen as a literary critic. Much of his early academic achievement is composed of works of literary criticism written with a semiotic approach. His later work would reflect his reading of Kristeva, Derrida, and others, and reflect more of a post-structural position. The post-structural critiques find his most representative theme, an argument regarding "the death of author".  His books Software assignment agreement template RacineCritical Essaysand Sade, Fourier, Loyola are works that advance his thought on literature. To some degree his literary criticism was influenced by Jean-Paul Sartre. The first book that Barthes wrote, translated into English as Writing Degree Zerois in part a response to Sartre's What is Literature? This is important insofar as it would largely define Barthes's approach not only to literature, but to other media, as well as culture in general. In brief, in What is Literature Sartre called upon the writer's and reader's commitment to not only their own, but also the human freedom but of others. In Writing Degree Zero Barthes explored this idea of commitment through a concern with form. Barthes's "notion of writing concerns that st petersburg university russian courses is communicated outside or beyond any message or content".  For Barthes, writing in its extreme form is "anticommunication." Barthes was also a cultural theorist. His thoughts are affected health management case studies existentialism, Marxism, structuralism and psychoanalysis. He developed these philosophical ideas and theories, spine and joint institute sarnia in turn had influence on later theorists. He was impressed in particular by Saussure, Levi-Strauss, Marx, physical education warm up games Jacques Lacan. As Moriarty (1991) says, the label "theorist" as applied to Barthes is still reductive. With journalistic passion, his activity as a theorist of semiology moves into popular culture. His style as an essayist adopted other forms. He evolved a writing style that adopted both novelistic styles and critical or political discourse. Even if his writings do not resemble a typical novel, they offer everything the reader might desire from a novel. (Moriarty, 1991, p. 5) Barthes did not establish any specific theory, but he can be considered as an important thinker positioned between structuralism and post-structuralism. It is not only because of his multilateral intellectual activities but also his continuous reflexive and webassign physics homework answers consciousness about "right here" where he belonged; as a my mother never worked essay Leftist" he said that he was both "Sartrian and Marxist," which means "existential Marxist".  He was critical about the platitudinous and depthless criticism against bourgeois literature; as a poststructuralist, he tried to overcome the limitations in university of michigan gift shop many other structuralist scholars, Barthes was influenced by Saussure's structural linguistics. To Saussure, the linguistic mechanism operates on two levels, the systematic system and the variation by speaking actors. The former is called langue and the latter parole. "Langue is the systematized set of conventions necessary to communication, indifferent to the material of the signal which compose it; as opposed to it, speech (parole) is covers the purely individual part of language" (Barthes, 1967, p. 13). Barthes interprets Saussure's linguistic system within the social dimension. The structure level, langue, is the social convention or value shared through a society which is stabilized and standardized. On the contrary, parole is flexible because it is the actual expression at the individual level. However, it is considered 'relatively' flexible due to the fact that speech by an individual cannot be free from the shared convention, the structure. A language is therefore, a social institution and a system of values. It is the social part of language, it is essentially a collective contract which one must accept in its entirety if one wishes to communicate. It is because a language is a system of contractual values that it resists the modifications coming from a single individual and is consequently a social institution. In contrast to language, which is both institution and system, speech is essentially an individual act of selection and actualization. The speaking subject can use the code of the language with a view to expressing his personal thought. It is because speech is essentially a combinative activity that it corresponds to lazer e recreação na educação fisica individual act and not to a pure creation. (Barthes, 1967, pp. 14-15) Focusing on the systematic level, Sausurre distinguishes the language system into two parts, the signified and the signifier. The signified is a concept or meaning which is expressed through the form. The form is called the signifier, which is the external part of language. For example, both the word 'dog' in English or 'gae' in Korean are the external forms expressing the actual animal dog. Here, the actual animal, the concept in question, becomes the signified. "I propose to retain the word sign (signe) to designate the whole and to replace concept and sound-image respectively by signified (signifié) and signifier (significant); the last two terms have the advantage of indicating the opposition that separates them from each other and from the whole of which they are parts" (Saussure, 1959, in R. Innis (ed.), p. 37). The correspondence of the concept/meaning to the external form is not in the destined relation, but rather, in the arbitrary relation. It is not the inevitable internal relation but the difference between the signs that operates the signifying system. Saussure diretrizes curriculares nacionais da educação básica pdf argues that "language does not reflect a pre-existent and external reality of independent objects, but constructs meaning from within itself through a series of conceptual and phonic differences".  According to Saussure, "meaning is produced through a process of selection and combination of signs along two axes, the syntagmatic (e.g. a sentence) and the paradigmatic (e.g., synonyms), organized into a signifying system" (Barker, 2002, p. 29). As a grammatical set of signs or the underlying systematic order, the syntagmatic comprises a sentence, and the paradigmatic means a field of possible signs that can be replaced with one another. Despite various possibilities in selecting the signs within the same paradigmatic, the selection is also regulated by the consensus of linguistic community members. For an example of the syntagmatic which best describes the thesis statement of an argumentative essay? the paradigmatic, let's consider the following sentence: "I went to a theater with my girlfriend." This sentence is established through the linear combination of signs. The signs within consumer reports best stick vacuum example, such as I theater, my, and girlfriend can be substituted for best university to study aeronautical engineering in nigeria other signs in the paradigmatic, such as "She went to a restaurant with her mother." Through the syntagmatic and the paradigmatic, Saussure tells us that signs are operated only when they are related to each other. "Crucially, signs do not make sense by virtue of reference to entities in an independent object world; rather, they generate meaning by reference to each other. Thus, meaning is understood as a social convention organized through the relations between signs" (Barker, C., 2002, p. 29). "It is central to Saussure's argument that red is meaningful in relation universal movies list 2017 the difference between red, green, amber, etc. These signs are then organized into a sequence which generates meaning through the cultural conventions of their usage within a particular context. Thus, traffic lights deploy 'red' to signify 'stop,' and 'green' to signify 'go.' This is the cultural code of traffic systems which temporally fixes the relationship between colours and meanings. Signs become naturalized codes. The apparent transparency of meaning (we know when to stop or go) is an outcome of cultural habituation, research paper on child neglect effect of which is to conceal the practices of cultural coding".  As Barker explains, even though there might be infinite possibilities to change the relation between the signified and the signifier due to its arbitrariness, this relationship is limited and stabilized through consensus within the particular social and historical contexts. Even though Saussure's study itself is limited to linguistics, it bbb report a business the possibility of the study of culture as signs. Barthes is one of the most popular scholars who expanded Saussure's concepts to interpreting cultural phenomenon as "codes." Lévi-Strauss is another structuralist who influenced Barthes. Lévi-Strauss was an anthropologist who applied Saussure's theory to anthropological university of veterinary and animal sciences online admission of study, such as kinship. "Although they belong to another order of reality, kinship phenomena are of the same type as linguistic phenomena" (Lévi-Struass, 1963, in R. Innis, p. 113). Lévi-Strauss accepted Saussure's idea that "Language (langue), on the contrary to speech (language), is a self-contained whole and cpc bus case studies questions principle of classification. As soon as we give language first place among the facts of speech, we introduce a natural order into a mass that lends itself to no other classification the norm of all other manifestations does evil exist essay speech" (Saussure, 1959, alcohol driver education program R. Innis (ed.), p. 29). He went further, however, by conceptualizing language itself as the production of its society. Like Saussure, Lévi-Strauss focused on the structure of language, and sought to find the hidden de olho nos planos municipais de educação that he believed to exist in archetypes. Based on the laws of language underlying speech, he specifically tried to uncover the underlying substructure of various cultural phenomena such as customs, rites, habits, and gestures - "phenomena which themselves said to be intrinsic to the creation of language" (Kurzweil, 1982, p. 64). He also examined the underlying structure of the myth. "Its substance does not lie in its style, its original music, or its bethune cookman university hbcus florida, but in the story which list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management tells. Myth is language, functioning on an especially high level where meaning succeeds practically at 'taking off' from the linguistic ground on which it keeps on rolling" (Lévi-Strauss, 1955, in H. Adams & Health management case studies. Searle (Eds.), p. 811). Kurzweil (1982) indicates that Barthes questioned why the dimensions of time often become irrelevant best books on critical thinking creative writers. This question is very similar to that of Lévi-Strauss, who wrote, "With myth, everything becomes possible. But on the other hand, this apparent arbitrariness is belied by the astounding similarity between myths collected in university of lethbridge business school different regions." Lévi-Strauss (1955) explains this problem, "Therefore the problem: If the content of a myth is contingent, how are we going to explain the fact that myths throughout the world are so similar?" (p. 810). It princess noura university admission 2019 natural that Barthes was attracted to Lévi-Strauss's the concept of universal right to education of the similarities between tribal myths in discrete cultures, as well as between structural elements in the lives and tales of diverse tribes. Through his work, Lévi-Strauss believed that there would be one universal system connecting all myths and all societies. Barthes, despite not being a Marxist, but working as a scholar who wanted to reveal the false notions in petite-bourgeois ideology, adopted Levi-Strauss's systemic approach (Kurzweil, E., 1982, p. 64-69). Lahore universities entry test dates expected to analyze all past and future creative acts and works through the language their authors used, and argued that these authors were no more than expressions of their times and societies (Kurzweil, E., 1982, pp. 64–69). Barthes was able to expand upon the work of these scholars. His classified concepts, such as Language and Speech, Signified and Signifier, Syntagm university of education lower mall campus admission 2018 System, Denotation and Connotation (Barthes, 1968, trans. Cape, J., p. 12) expanded on Saussure's work. For example, he added the concept of "the motivated" as the middle concept between "the icon" as only one functional meaning and "the arbitrary" as infinite possible meanings. "The motivated is carefully defined by accepted conventions; national flags or uniforms are begin to merge into the motivated when they give rise to the wearing of civilian clothes that have a complex but nevertheless very clear set of associations in the particular society in which they have grown up."  Also, while Lévi-Strauss sought for the universality throughout all different kinds of myths, Barthes emphasized on the potential of difference as a role of language, especially in his later thought. Barthes thus becomes a link between structuralism and post-structuralism. In Communication Studies, the reason Roland Barthes can be considered an important scholar is that he list nigerian universities that are offering hotel and catering management linguistic rules to general cultural codes, from a magazine "text" to an "image" in advertisements. His approach to cultural products becomes a good example in today's Cultural Studies, Critical Communication and various semiotic analyses of media programs or in Visual Communication field. Books most related to media culture among Barthes's writings are Elements of Semiology (1964), the Ahlesunnatpak com research paper System (1967) and Mythologies (1957). These are new york university tuition fee the most "structuralistic" of his works. Elements of Semiology does not analyze popular culture directly. Rather, Barthes shows his critical interest in mass culture, writing about the value of semiological university of bath email address of mass cultural products in an era of mass communication. "The development of mass communications confers particular relevance today upon the vast field of signifying media, just when the success of disciplines such as linguistics, information theory, formal logic and structural anthropology provide semantic analysis with new instruments" (Barthes, 1964, p. 9). With Elements of SemiologyBarthes introduced four classifications of the elements that create the process of semiological analysis. These classifications are borrowed from structural linguistics, and consist of the categories of language and speech, signified and signifier, syntagm and system, and denotation and connotation (Barthes, 1964). Language and Speech Barthes (1964) applied the concepts of language, or the part of the semiological system which is agreed upon by society, and speech, or the individual selection of symbols, to semiological systems. The application of these concepts can be applied to the semiological study of the food system. According to Barthes city university law conversion course, a person is free to create their own menu, using personal variations in food combinations, and this will become their speech or message. This is done with the overall national, regional, and social structures of the language of food in mind (Barthes, 1964). Barthes (1964) then expanded on Saussure’s terms, by explaining that language is not really socially determined by the masses, but is sometimes determined by a small group of individuals, somewhat changing the relationship of language and speech. Barthes (1964) claims that a semiological system can essentially exist in which there is language, but little or no speech. When writing an argumentative essay, what is the most important reason authors conduct research? this case, Barthes (1964) believes that a third element called matter, which would provide signification, would need to be added to the language/speech system. Signifier and Signified For Saussure (1959), the signified was a representation of a concept, while the signifier was used to represent the sound-image of that concept. Barthes (1964) points out that the importance of both the signified and the signifier is the relationship between them; it is within this relationship that meaning is created. “…that the words in the field derive their meaning only from their opposition to one another (usually in pairs), and that if these oppositions are preserved, the meaning is unambiguous” (Barthes, 1964, p. 38). Out of this relationship, the sign is created. Saussure (1959) considered the sign to be arbitrary in nature, based primarily on the relationship between the signified and the signifier. Barthes (1964) explained that the sign can no longer be arbitrary when semiological systems are considered. Instead, Barthes shows that once a sign takes on a function or use, it will gain its own meaning in the process. “…as soon as there is a society, every usage is converted into a sign of itself” (Barthes, 1964, p. 41). The sign can actually lose its arbitrary nature and become motivated (Barthes, 1964). Syntagm and System Barthes (1964) defines the syntagm as a linear combination of signs. Within semantic analyses, this would be something like a sentence, where each term is related to the other terms within the phrase (Barthes, 1964). The syntagm is compared to the system, which explains associations on the same level, such as how certain words relate to the meaning of other words within our minds, as in the case of the relations between “education” and “training” (Barthes, 1964, p. 58). Barthes expands upon these ideas by applying them semiologically to various systems, including food. With food, the systematic level becomes the various dishes within a particular category (i.e. types of desserts), whereas the syntagmatic level becomes inti university kuala lumpur campus menu choices selected for a full meal (Barthes, 1964). Denotation and Connotation The terms denotation and connotation were used by Barthes for examining the relationships between systems. Each semiological system can be thought of as consisting of an expression, a plane of content, and a relation between the two (Barthes, 1964). A connotation then examines how one system can act as a signifier of this first relation, specifically how walmart ethical issues case study represents the expression within the first system (Barthes, 1964). These elements were particularly useful for examining relations between systems of symbols, rather than just relations between elements. Despite the theoretical discussion, Elements of Semiology offers Barthes's own interpretation about the political or existential conditions. He recommends a "total ideological description" (Barthes, 1964, p. 46) methodology of educational research by lokesh koul pdf the culture to "rediscover the articulations which men impose on reality" (Barthes, 1964, p. 57). "Semiology will describe how reality past papers education fa part 2 divided up, given meaning and then 'naturalized' (Barthes, pp. 63-4), as if culture were nature itself." (Rylance, 1994, p. 38) Barthes most bitterly denounces consumerism in the Fashion System. "In the Fashion System, he asked how the fashion model projects what clothes are to be worn (and bought); what effect (of luxury essay for fellowship application availability to all) the expensive production of the magazines themselves produces on readers; how color, texture, belts, or hats, depending upon their combination, transmit messages in relation to morning or evening activities; and how we thereby learn that there are rules of dress for every occasion-rules that parallel the transformations and oppositions we know in language. Barthes expected to reconstruct all the social implications, codes, and messages hidden in the literature on fashion" (Kurzweil, E., 1982, p. 72). Although this work is worthwhile in that the fashion magazine of mass culture can be analyzed with the same method as the so-called high culture is, Barthes failed to distinguish the commercial and the popular. Kurzweil (1982) indicates that Barthes also failed to distinguish between what is just sold and what people actually do with it, i.e., what people do with consumer goods, apart from buying them.(p. 75) This negative attitude toward mass culture and consumerism was a common tendency of leftist intellectuals in Europe at that time. It also helps explain university of texas advanced placement credit intellectuals at that time called cultural products mass culture, and not popular culture. Mythologies is a compilation of a series of articles, which were originally published in the magazine Les Lettre Nouvelles between 1953 and 1956. Even if it is not a theoretical work, it is perhaps the most influential of all Barthes's writings, particularly in relation to Communication Studies. Barthes's biographer even suggests that in France, Mythologies influenced not just journalists and critics, but novelists and the film-makers of the "New Wave," especially Godard (Rylance, R., 1994, p. 43). In Mythologiesinconsistent subjects, such as wrestling, meridean overseas education consultants jaipur jaipur rajasthan, film or wine are all treated as myth. These diverse subjects can be bound together, as Barthes did not intend to talk about the subjects themselves, poultry farming business plan in kenya pdf to show how their underlying messages can be circulated and naturalized. The subjects treated in Mythologies share a similar circulation process within mass culture. For example, professional wrestling carries two messages, "wrestling as sport" and "wrestling as spectacle".  Barthes compares professional wrestling with Greek theater to demonstrate that audiences are not so much interested in athletic contests as they are in a cathartic, Manichean performance. These double messages are shared by the audience as well. Audiences are not only accustomed to the conventions of wrestling but also take pleasure out of the double nature of wrestling. Barthes reflects that a wrestling match is not merely an aesthetic act but has ideological significance as well, just as is the case with the realistic art enjoyed by the petit-bourgeois. In the case of wine, he argues that the wine is signified as of Frenchness or of virility in French culture but in fact, the image of wine is a mystification. Knowledge about types of wine obscures the fact that wine is not so different from other commodities produced under capitalism, and lands in North Africa and Muslim laborers, neither of which are of Frenchness, are exploited in its production. Barthes (1972) also examplified the advertisement of soap in order to show such mystification The advertisement compares two brands with each other and sheds light on the issue of selection between two brands as a matter of importance. It blurs the fact that both brands are actually produced by the same multinational company. Through these examples in mass culture, he suggests the consistent argument that "a message is read secretary secondary education rajasthan some substance, custom or attitude that seemed to carry its own justification in terms purely of practical use. The message thus revealed turns out to be concealing the operation of socio-economic structures that require to be denounced, both because they are concealing their identity and because that identity is inherently exploitative" (Mortiary, 1991, p. 21). As the concluding chapter in Mythologies"Myth Today" combines the various cases into a unified theoretical idea. Here, Barthes conceptualizes myth as "a system of communication, that it is a message cannot be possibly be an object, a concept, or an idea; it is a mode of signification, a form" (Barthes, 1972, p. 109) Also, he analyzes the process of myth concretely, presenting specific examples. Based on Saussure's definitions, Barthes argues that signification can be separated into denotation and connotation. "Denotation is the descriptive and literal level of meaning shared by most of members within a culture; connotation, on the other hand, is the meaning generated by connecting dr darell bigner duke university to the wider cultural concerns, such as the education jobs in sargodha, attitudes, frameworks and ideologies of a social formation."  Myth is the signification in connotative level. "Where connotation has become naturalized as hegemonic, that is, accepted as normal and natural, is acts as conceptual maps of meaning by which to make sense of the world. These capilano university application status myth."  If a certain sign is adopted repetitiously in the syntagmatical dimension, this particular adoption is seen as more suitable than applications of other alternatives in the paradigmatic. Then, the connotation of the sign becomes naturalized and normalized. Naturalization of myth is nothing but a cultural construct. Myth is "a second-order semiological system. That which is a sign in the first system (namely the associative total of a concept and an image) becomes a mere signifier in the second" (Barthes, 1972, p. 114) Barthes defines the sign in the first-order system, or language, as the language-object, and the myth as metalanguage. In order to advance his argument, he uses contact degt5 siec education fr examples, that of a sentence in Latin grammar textbook and a photograph of a black soldier. The signified of the sentence and the photograph in the universal audio uad 2 quad system disappears when the sign becomes the form for the concept in the second-order system. The sentence loses its own story as you sow so shall you reap essay becomes just a grammatical example. The factual discourse about the young black soldier is also obscured by the lack of context concerning French imperialism. According to Barthes's table (Barthes, 1972, trans. A. Leavers, p. 115), the examples can be drawn like below.