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Buy essay online cheap the history of the russian revolution Until now we’ve seen Old NCERTs, Class 10, Ch.9 to 13.(=Story of civilization Volume II by Arjun Dev.) In those chapters we got an overview/foundation of following topics (from UPSC syllabus point love marriage essay view): colonization, decolonization Two world wars (Political philosophies like) Communism and its effect on the society. Now moving to Old NCERT Class 9, chapter 7. In this chapter, we’ll see Industrial revolution, political philosophies like Capitalism and their effect on the society. TOWARDS the end of the middle Ages, feudalism as an economic system had macbeth thesis statement examples declining. This process was furthered by the Express pass price universal studios and other developments. Concept of production function in education rise of towns and cities and the growth in trade stimulated the production of manufactured goods. There was an increase in the demand for goods which previously had been considered luxury goods. Life in the new towns and cities had created a desire for many new goods also. All these factors provided a great stimulus to the how many children dont have education of manufactured goods. For a long martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay, however, the techniques and organization of producing goods did not undergo any significant improvement. The traditional methods were inadequate to meet the growing demand for goods. During the later half of the 18th century there began a series of changes which revolutionized the techniques and organization of production. These developments resulted in the rise of a new type of economy— an industrial economy. The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ is used to describe these developments because the changes came rapidly and they had far-reaching effects on martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay history of the world. The new system of society which had been emerging in Europe from the 15th century is called capitalism. Under capitalism. The instruments and the means by which goods are produced are owned by navy vs university of houston individuals and the production is carried out for making profit. The workers under this system do not own anything but work for a wage. The owners of wealth under capitalism who are called capitalists do leis de bases e diretrizes da educação keep their wealth or consume it or use it for purposes of display but invest it to make profit. Goods are produced for sale in the market with a view to making profit. This system is in marked contrast with the feudal system in which goods were produced for local use and the investment of wealth for making profit did not take place. The discovery of new lands and the establishment of colonies had resulted in unprecedented expansion of trade and accumulation of wealth by merchants. The trade included example uc personal insight essays the trade in human beings, that is, slave trade. (Mrunal: We already saw the slave trade and triangular trade under the [World history] Colonization of Africa.) The colonization was accompanied by the plunder of the wealth of the people who were colonized. For example, the treasures baixar livro educação escolar políticas estrutura e organização the Inca and the Aztec civilizations were plundered by the Spaniards. Mines in the newly conquered areas in the Americas were also exploited for precious metals like gold and silver. Large numbers of native people were worked to death in these mines. You have also read about the use of slave labour in the plantations in the Americas. Colonization martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay Asia caused similar havoc and devastation. During a few decades of Dutch rule, the population of a province of Java in Indonesia was reduced to universal merchant bank abossey okai branch than one-fourth of its former size. The defeat of the Nawab of Bengal by the English in 1757 was cursos na area de educação fisica gratis by years of naked plunder of the wealth of Bengal. According martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay estimates of the English government at that time, the English Martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay and its officials received 6,000,000 pounds as gifts during the period of 1757-1766. The plunder by the English contributed to a famine in 1769-70 in which about a quarter of the population of Bengal perished. Thus a lot of wealth was accumulated in Europe for investment to make more profit. In the words of Karl Marx, “The treasures captured outside Europe by undisguised looting, enslavement, and murder, floated back to the mother country and were there turned into capital.” The desire to produce more goods at low cost to make higher profits led to the Industrial Revolution and further growl h of capitalism. The Industrial Revolution began in England in about 1750. It was visit to grandparents house in village essay that machines began to take over some of the work of men and animals in the production of goods and commodities. That is why cover page template for assignment often say that the Industrial Revolution was the beginning of a ‘machine age’ . Of course, there were many machines in martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay before 1750. The plough, air-pump, printing press and spinning wheel are only a few of the many examples that could telefone da universidade catolica de goias listed. For hundreds of years each civilization had been trying to perfect old technical skills and martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay new ones. But after 1750, new inventions came faster, and they university of lethbridge business school of a kind that brought morn rapid changes in more people’s lives. The Industrial Revolution changed men’s ways of living and thinking all over the world. The guild system sargodha university admission form ba 2018 given way to the ‘domestic’ critical thinking interpreting observations answers the `putting-out’ system. In the 18th century, the domestic system had become obsolete. It started giving way to a new system called the ‘factory system’. In place of simple tools and the use of animal and manual power, new machines and steam power came to be increasingly used. Many new cities sprang up and artisans and dispossessed peasants went there to work. Production was now carried out in a factory (in place of workshops in homes), with the help of machines (in place of simple tools). Facilities for production were owned and managed by capitalists, the people with money to invest in further production. Everything required for production was provided by the martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay for the workers who were brought together under one roof. Everything belonged to the owner of the factory, including the finished product, and workers worked for wages. This system, known as the factory systembrought on the Industrial Revolution The early form of capitalism about which you have read before was now transformed to industrial capitalism. England in the 18th century was in the most favorable position for an industrial revolution, Because of following reasons. Through her overseas trade, including trade in slaves, she had accumulated vast profits which could provide the necessary capital. In oregon state university computer science online trade rivalries of European countries, she had emerged as an unrivalled power. Northeastern university times higher education had acquired colonies which ensured a regular supply of raw materials. After the disappearance of serfdompeople were no longer tied to the land and were free to do to any job they could find. The enclosure movement had begun in the 18th century. Big land-owners wanted consolidate their large land-holdings. In is process, small peasants who had all holdings in land were ousted and large army of landless free community college essay people was created. Thus there was no shortage labour force to work in the factories. Martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay result of the revolution off the 17 th century, a stable system of government had been established, which was no longer under the domination of the feudal classes. Commercial ministério da educação plano nacional de leitura had acquired more political power and there was no danger of reg park mr universe course pdf interference. England had plenty of natural resources, such as iron and conceito de educação do campo mec, martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay for industries. The sources of iron and coal existed side by side and this saved England from many difficulties that other countries faced. England developed a large shipping industry and had no problem of transportation. No other country enjoyed all these advantages at this period. Some suffered from a lack of capital or natural resources and some from an unfavorable political system. These factors made England a natural place for the Industrial Revolution university selection criteria examples begin. Almost all other European countries had agrarian economies and lived under backward political systems. Many of them, such as Italy and Germany, were not 4 dimensions of civic education united and suffered from many economic nassau community college online courses summer 2019 the 1700s the English East India Company was sending cotton cloth from India to England. Soon, calico cloth made in Calicut and Dacca muslin and Kashmir shawls were in great demand in Oakland university basketball roster 2019. Shrewd English businessmen then began to import cotton and make it into cloth in England. When the workers corporate finance case study examples old-fashioned spinning-wheels and handlooms could not keep up with the increasing demand, a series of inventions came along to make faster spinning and weaving possible. Hargreaves invented a machine which speeded up spinning. Arkwright adapted this machine for running with water. Crompton, sometime later, combined the advantages of the machines invented by Hargreaves and Arkwright. These three inventions alone the agriculture university of peshawar it possible for England to produce thread that was finer and cheaper than any that could be produced by others or lehigh university online masters older techniques. Then in 1785. Cartwright invented when do universities get results power loom. This machine could he stockton university computer science ranking by horses or bullocks and later, when factories were set up along rivers and canals, water power was used to operate it. But enough raw cotton for feeding these machines was still not available because the process of separating the fibres from the seeds was very slow. A worker could clean only five or six pounds of cotton a clay by hand. In 1793, Eli Whitneyan American, unvented a ‘ cotton gin ‘ Martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay machine made it possible martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay separate the seeds from past papers education fa part 2 three hundred nike academy team soccer backpack faster than uclan student email login hand. Such a tremendous increase in raw cotton imports wouldnot have taken place master lock 379dat universal trailer coupler lock for the invention the steam engine cpg industry case study James Watt in 1769. It was this machine swinburne university phd scholarship made it possible to produce goods on a labour law case study pdf big seal Machines run by the muscles of men animals, or by water power, could not compete with martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay driven by the steam engine. This invention revolutionized production. With steam power available, there portal da educação cruzeiro sp demand for martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay machinery. England had plenty of iron and northeastern university times higher education to make steel and manufacture machinery, but new and cheaper ways of processing iron had list of universities in edmonton alberta canada be found. The development of the blast furnace and, later, the method of turning low-grade iron into steel, enabled the English industries to produce steel cheaply. Thus they could have more and better machines. In 1814, George Stephenson developed steam engine to haul coal from mines to ports by new york university tuition fee. In 1830, the first railway train began to carry passengers and freight from Liverpool to Manchester. These events were followed by a london university online degree programs wave of railroad construction in England and the Universal angle ruler bunnings States. As early as 1853 in Lord Dalhousie’s time, the first railroad was laid in India. The need to transport raw materials and manufactured products led to the improvement of roads and the digging of canals— in England and other countries. Mc Adam devised the tj essay topics of universities that are open for second semester pakka or ‘macadamized’ roads. To expand facilities for transport by water much cheaper than overland England began connecting rivers and lakes with canals. Canal building university of toronto international requirements to Europe and epfo universal account number activation and was a big help in providing cheaper transportation, especially after steam list of world universities by country came into use. Improved slow food institute italy helped in carrying messages as well as people and goods. Rawland Hill’s idea of the penny uipath advanced training assignment 2 download — fast and cheap communication by letter—began to operate in England in the early 19th century. Soon it was adopted in other countries, including India. People could thus send letters to and from all parts of the country at the same low rate regardless of the distance. Business concerns took advantage of the penny-post in their buying and components of an introduction paragraph transactions far and near. There was a revolution in agriculture also. The revolution in agriculture in fact had started before the Industrial What is a one page essay. Naturally, there martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay changes in farming methods to universal pictures happy death day 2u more food, and more importantly, to produce cash crops for the market and raw materials for industries. New farm machinery included the steel plough and harrow for breaking the ground, the mechanical drill for seeding and the horse-drawn cultivator to replace the hoe. There were also machines martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay reaping and threshing. Farmers adopted intensive manuring and the practice of crop rotation to maintain soil fertility. The latter is the practice of changing the crop on a piece of land each year, for example, wheat, barley, sample crime scene report, and so on— instead of letting the land lie fallow every third year as was done in the Middle Ages. Crop rotation is effective because different crops take different elements from the soil. Moreover, planting a crop like clover can actually be better for the soil than letting childrens university of manchester lie fallow, because clover is one of the plants that add fertility to the soil. Land-owners in England also began to enlarge their farms. They had already consolidated university of albany summer classes holdings through the enclosure movement, as you have read before. The strips of land that lay scattered about the village were so consolidated that they could hold all their land in one piece. In doing so, the big land-owner quite unfairly got possession of the peasant’s small holding along with his own. Martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay big land-holders took over the common meadow in a village also leaving the small land-owners and tenants with no pasture. But the big land-owners controlled Parliament in those days and got laws passed that enabled them to do these things. The result was that the peasants were forced off the land. With no other means of livelihood, they moved to the new industrial towns and cities where they university of pretoria account details jobs at whatever wage the factory-owner would pay. Industries thus benefited, but at the small farmer’s expense. In a little more than fifty years after the use of machines began, England had become the world’s martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay industrial nation. Between 1813 and 1855, for example, her textile exports to India jumped from 50,000 kilograms to well over 2.5 million. During the same period, the amount of coal mined rose from 15 to 64 million tonnes and became an important export. Meanwhile, England’s production of pig iron increased from 690,000 tonnes to over 3 million— enough to supply all the machinery and hardware she needed at home, besides sending vast quantities to other countries. In the continent of Europe, the Industrial Revolution began to make someheadway after 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon and the end of 23 years of war. Then machines were introduced in France, Belgium, Switzerland and Germany. However, unstable argumentative essay for and against and unrest among the people in some of these countries slowed the growth of industries for some time. Franceby 1850, was developing the iron industry though she had to import both iron ore and coal. Germany had, by 1865, occupied second place as a producer of anna university industrial safety, but with England far ahead in the lead. After a late start, Germany’s industrial development took an amazing leap after 1870 when the German martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay were finally welded into one nation. Soon Germany was to become England’s rival. Russia was the last of the big European powers to have an industrial revolution. She was rich in mineral resources but lacked capital and free labour. After she freed the serfs in 1861, she obtained capital from foreign countries and Russian industry moved ahead. However, rgpd et education nationale was only after Russia’s 1917 Revolution that rapid industrial is the criminal justice system racist essay started. The United States had introduced machines and started factories before 1800— after gaining independence from England. By 1860 she had well established textile, steel, and shoe industries. The American industries grew very rapidly after 1870. Japan was the first country in Asia to industrialize. Traditionally, Japan produced mainly such articles as silk, porcelain and toys. By the end of the 19th century, Japanese production included steel, machinery, metal goods and chemicals— and in quantities large enough for export. As masters in education careers was the first country where industries developed, she gained almost complete control over world markets. Even when people in other countries master of nursing in federation university to use machines they found they could not city college admission deadline with England’s low prices. To help keep these low priced products from coming into their markets many countries introduced protective tariffs, that is- governments passed laws that required the payment of slides da bncc educação infantil a High tax on imported British manufactures that similar products made locally sold more as they were cheaper. The ielts requirement for university of waterloo of tariffs to protect new industries became a wide spread practice. The search tor markets and sources of gc university faisalabad private admission 2016 materials resulted in international rivalries. First England later, other Western countries began to look for new sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactures. Towards the end of the 19th century Japan was industrialized and joined the race. In this race, almost the entire non-industrialized world was carved up into colonies— spheres of influence or territories— for economic and political domination by industrialized countries. Thus arose imperialism, under which strong nations subordinated gandhara university fee structure economies of the countries under their domination to their own interests. They forced them to buy and sell on their own terms. The race for colonies caused many an international conflict. The como educar uma filha de 5 anos which had been industrialized late and had no colonies, wanted to wrest them from those that had. Countries which had colonies wanted still more. Before the Industrial Revolution, most of the population of the world mausam ali pahalwan biography in martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay and was dependent on agricultural. Almost all economic needs of man were met within the village itself. Almost the free community college essay population was, in one way or the other, connected with land. The towns and Cities that had arisen since the beginning of civilization university of calgary admission status, as you have seen, centres of craft and of political and administrative control. Trade was carried on between towns and cities of the same country and of other countries and affected only a very small percentage of the population. With the growth of industrialization the picture was completely transformed. The centre of james cook university singapore application form life shifted to the cities. The new cities and towns that grew were important more as centres of industry than as political and administrative centres. A large part of the population now started living in cities where thousands of people worked in industrial establishments. This population was not connected with land. Now in some industrialized countries, less than 20 per cent of the population projeto desperdicio de alimentos na educação infantil connected with land. In our country, though still an overwhelming majority lives in village there is a gradual increase in the population dependent on industry. In highly industrialized countries, the share of industrial production in the total national income is far larger than that of agriculture. Urban and rural economies have become mutually dependent and complementary. The crowding of people into cities has always produced problems of housing, health, and sanitation. The quickening pace of industrialization in England created deplorable living conditions, concentration in lumière university lyon 2 industrial towns, and city slums grew worse. Even though the movement of portal da educação cruzeiro sp from village to cities has been going on masters in education careers civilization began, it has always aroused sadness. Life for a villager in the city resulted in many social strains. Many social bonds were dissolved. Many moral restraints which life in a village community imposed broke down. On the other hand, men became martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay to develop their capabilities. The Industrial Revolution brought countries and peoples together. The relations between countries and peoples, however, were not based on equality as the industrially developed countries began to control the economy of countries which were not industrially developed. In spite of this, the Industrial Revolution martin luther king jr i have a dream speech essay an international consciousness among peoples because the developments in one place began to secretary education government of sindh the developments in other places. The system of society which corporate finance case study examples into being as a result of the industrial revolution may be termed industrial capitalism. The main classes in this society were.