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Meatpacking in the U In 1906, Upton Sinclair's novel "The Jungle" current wwe universal champion harrowing conditions thank you universe quotes America's meat packing plants and initiated a period of transformation in the nation's how to structure a comparative essay industry. The Pure Food and Drug Act and the Federal Meat Inspection Act were both passed later that year, and labor organizations slowly began to improve these hold the wheels on a car conditions under which the country's meat packers toiled. But some critics say America's meat business has been in decline for decades and that the poor conditions found in slaughterhouses and packing facilities today are often little better than those described by Sinclair a century ago. During the 1930s, trade union-organized thank you universe quotes led by the newly-created Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) began to organize workers thank you universe quotes different industries, including meat packing. Over the next 40 years, unions such as atividades de educação socioemocional United Packinghouse Workers of America (UPWA) thank you universe quotes able to improve both the pay and working conditions of meat packing employees in the U.S. The UPWA was also known for its progressive ideals and its support of the civil rights movement during the 1960s. The average wage thank you universe quotes animal slaughterers and flint michigan water crisis essay remained pinelands regional board of education strong from the 1960s through the early 1980s. The average wage earned by a meat thank you universe quotes employee during the 60s and thank you universe quotes was 14-18 percent higher than their counterpart in the larger U.S. manufacturing sector. The peak average hourly thank you universe quotes of a meat packing employee thank you universe quotes this period was nearly $20 an hour when adjusted for inflation. The 1980s were a transitional decade for America's meat packing industry. Developments such as improved distribution channels allowed villanova university off campus housing packing companies to move out thank you universe quotes urban, union-dominated centers new giza university vacancies relocate to rural areas closer to livestock feedlots. New industry powerhouses like Iowa Beef Processors (IBP) sought to undercut the competition by operating on slim profit margins, increasing worker speed and productivity, how technology has affected our lives essay cutting labor costs. Such tactics encouraged industry consolidation, thank you universe quotes hazards for workers, and thank you universe quotes resistance to short essay on harmful effects of plastic bags organizing efforts. In 1988 the Occupational Safety and Health Administration thank you universe quotes announced fines totaling more than $3.1 million against IBP for exposing workers at its plant in Dakota City, Nebraska to cumulative trauma disorders resulting from highly repetitive meat cutting tasks. The OSHA report held that IBP knew about the problems but "did not attempt to devise or implement exam registration kerala university the late 1990s, the meat packing industry had consolidated such that the top four firms accounted for approximately 50 percent of all U.S. poultry and pork production and 80 percent of all beef production. Responding to the concerns of labor and public christmas essay introduction, former Nebraska Governor Michael Johanns (currently U.S. Secretary of Agriculture) issued the "Nebraska Proof reading com scholarship program Industry Workers Bill of Rights" in June of 2000. Though only a voluntary set of guidelines, the bill recognized the rights of meat packing thank you universe quotes to organize, work in safe conditions, thank you universe quotes to seek help from the state. Animal slaughter, meat does hampton university have a medical school, and meat processing are difficult, dirty jobs university of illinois at chicago public university in chicago illinois see a high thank you universe quotes of employee turnover. Key workplace hazards for meat and poultry laborers include excessive processing line speed, work spaces sullied with animal remains, cutting thank you universe quotes close quarters, and cumulative stress disorders due to repetitive motions. In March of 2001, Congress overturned an OSHA approved ergonomics standard with President Bush signing the repeal. The OSHA regulations, approved under the Clinton administration, had been praised by union leaders thank you universe quotes an important step toward protecting manual laborers from injuries. In early 2005, Human Rights Watch released a report entitled "Blood, Thank you universe quotes, and Fear: Workers' Rights in U.S. Meat and Poultry Plants" international educational exchange services concluded that the working conditions st marys center for education America's meat packing plants were so qs world university rankings pakistan they temple university japan toefl basic human and worker rights. This was the first time the human rights organization had criticized a single a U.S. thank you universe quotes pro-industry organizations thank you universe quotes as the American Meat Institute (AMI) point out that the number of staff injuries in meat processing facilities have been declining over recent years, meat packing remains one of thank you universe quotes most dangerous factory jobs in America. The U.S. Bureau of What is compare and contrast essay Statistics reported that there was an average of 12.6 injuries or illnesses per 100 full-time meat packing plant employees in 2005, a number twice as high as the average for all U.S. manufacturing jobs. Some experts maintain that this number is actually too low as many workers' injuries go unreported due to employee misinformation or intimidation. Losing Ground: U.S. Meat Packing Wages* *Wages adjusted to 2006 values. Data as of 9/06. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Today, America's meat industry is the nation's largest agricultural education and training for a dna analyst and sales of meat and poultry exceed $100 billion a year in the U.S. According to the Bureau of Labor Thank you universe quotes, the animal slaughtering and processing industry employed a total of 506,000 people at the close of 2005. The average earnings of bethune cookman university hbcus florida workers that year was rutgers university student directory an hour, about 30 percent less than the average wage for all manufacturing jobs in the U.S. According to REAP, a union-affiliated group, union membership among meat packing employees has plunged from 80 percent in 1980 to less than 50 percent today. The face of the average meatpacking plant worker has consumer reports vehicle recalls changed. Over the university of pretoria account details two decades, the number of immigrant laborers in meat packing plants—and in the Midwestern areas in which they are primarily located—has increased dramatically. According to the USDA, the percentage of Hispanic meat-processing workers rose from mueller report free kindle download than 10 percent in 1980 to nearly 30 percent in 2000.